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Thread: Richmond Howitzers 1st Company (Battery A)

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    Richmond Howitzers 1st Company (Battery A)



    Join the Richmond Howitzers today!

    An elite unit, the Howitzers served with distinction from 1st Manassas to Appomattox



    Professional people wanted! Part of the world does not matter. Language will be English. NA + EU server and times no more private life for you soldier!... Got to man the cannons!



    Richmond Howitzers, 1st Company
    Commanding Officer: Capt. E. S. McCarthy

    Statistics for Maryland Campaign
    Initial Strength: 33
    Killed in Action (KIA): 1
    Wounded (WIA): 1
    Losses, % of Initial Strength: 6.1%

    Arms:
    2 10-pdr. Parrott
    2 6-pdr. Gun

    About the cannons:

    10 pdr. Parrott Rifle





    Type: Rifled gun
    Rarity: Common
    Years of Manufacture: Between 1861 and 1865
    Tube Composition: Cast Iron, Wrought Iron Breech Band
    Bore Diameter: 2.9 inches (Model 1861); 3.0 inches (Model 1863)
    Rifling Type (US): 3 grooves, right hand gain twist
    Rifling Type (CS): 3 groves right hand twist, or 12 grooves left hand twist
    Standard Powder Charge: 1 lb. Black Powder
    Projectiles: 10 lb. solid bolt, case, common shell, cannister
    Effective Range (at 5): up to 1,900 yards (1.1 miles)
    Projectile Flight Time (at 5): about 8 seconds
    Max Range (at 35): 5,000 yards (2.8 miles)
    Projectile Flight Time (at 35): about 21 seconds
    Tube Length: 78 inches (US); 81 inches (CS)
    Tube Weight: 890 lbs. (US); 1,150 lbs. (CS)
    Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 1,800 lbs. (US); 2,060 lbs. (CS)
    Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels
    Horses Required to Pull: 6
    No. in North America: approx. 630
    Cost in 1862 Dollars: $180 (US); $ 300 (CS)
    Cost in 1865 Dollars: $187 (US); $3,000 (CS)
    Invented By: Robert Parker Parrott in 1860
    US Casting Foundry: West Point Foundry, Cold Springs, NY
    CS Casting Foundry: Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, VA
    Special Notes: Easy to Manufacture, Inexpensive, Reliable, and Accurate to Shoot

    One famous U.S. inventor was a former West Point graduate and ordnance officer named Robert Parker Parrott.

    Robert Parker Parrott In 1836, Parrott resigned his rank of captain and went to work for the West Point Foundry at Cold Spring, New York. This foundry was a civilian operated business and Parrott, as a superintendent, was able to dedicate some forty years perfecting a rifled cannon and a companion projectile. By 1860, he had patented a new method of attaching the reinforcing band on the breech of a gun tube. Although he was not the first to attach a band to a tube, he was the first to use a method of rotating the tube while slipping the band on hot. This rotation, while cooling, caused the band to attach itself in place uniformly rather than in one or two places as was the common method, which allowed the band to sag in place. The 10-pounder Parrott was patented in 1861 and the 20- and 30-pounder guns followed in 1861. He quickly followed up these patents by producing 6.4-, 8-, and 10-inch caliber cannons early in the war. The Army referred to these as 100, 200, and 300-pounder Parrotts respectively. By the end of the conflict the Parrott gun was being used extensively in both armies

    6-pdr. Gun



    Type: Smoothbore gun
    Rarity: Common to Uncommon
    Years of Manufacture: 1841 to 1863
    Tube Composition: Bronze or cast iron
    Bore Diameter: 3.67 inches
    Standard Powder Charge: 1.25 lbs.
    Projectiles: Solid shot (6.1 lb), spherical case, common shell, and cannister
    Effective Range (at 5): up to 1,523 yards
    Tube Length: 60 inches
    Tube Weight: 884 lbs.
    Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels
    Horses Required to Pull: 6
    No. in North America: approx. 700
    Special Notes: Workhorse of Mexican War, but considered obsolete by Civil War

    Model 1841 6-pounder Gun
    This popular workhorse of the Mexican War era was regarded as superseded by the Union artillery, but was still heavily employed by a Confederate army that could not afford to pass up any opportunities.



    Richmond Howitzers History



    George Wythe Randolph, the first captain of the Richmond Howitzers, was born in 1818 at Monticello, the home of his maternal grandfather, Thomas Jefferson. Randolph was appointed a midshipman at the age of thirteen, and served in the navy for six years. Afterwards he studied law at the University of Virginia, and in 1850 moved to Richmond to practice his profession. He conceived the idea of the "Howitzer Battery", which began organization on November 9, 1859, himself as captain and Gaston Otey as First Sergeant.

    The Richmond Howitzers grew into a battalion of three companies by May 1861. The original company, reorganized on May 8 with the election of Captain John C. Shields, was thereafter known as the 1st Company. In November 1861 Captain Shields was promoted to Lt. Colonel and transferred, to be replaced by Lt. Wm. Palmer. In March of 1862 Captain Palmer, who desired to go into army medical service, was replaced by 1st. Lt. Edward McCarthy.

    An elite unit, the Howitzers served with distinction. The 1st Company Richmond Howitzers, a four-gun battery, participated at First Manassas, the Peninsular Campaign, Seven Pines, the Seven Days' Battles, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, and the retreat from Richmond to Appomattox.

    At Gettysburg, on July 2, 1863, its two rifled guns expended 200 rounds of ammunition in less than two hours at Devil's Den, and the next day, one piece alone expended 300 rounds in support of Pickett's Charge. The battery saw its commander, Edward S. McCarthy, killed at Cold Harbor; felled instantly by a sharpshooter’s minie ball.

    The book: "Four Years Under Marse Robert," by Major Robert Stiles of Cabell's Batallion offers these observations of the Richmond Howitzers:

    "The composition of the three companies was very similar; that is, all of them were made up largely of young business men and clerks of the highest grade and best character from the city of Richmond, but included also a number of country boys, for the most part of excellent families, with a very considerable infusion of college-bred men, for it was strikingly true that in 1861 the flower of our educated youth gravitated toward the artillery. The outcome was something quite unparalleled, so far as I know. It is safe to say that no less than one hundred men were commissioned from the corps during the war, and these of every rank from a Secretary of War down to a second lieutenant."

    "Few things have ever impressed me as did the intellectual and moral character of the men who composed the circle I entered the day our guide led my brother and myself to the Howitzer Camp. I had lived for years at the North, had graduated recently at Yale, and had but just entered upon the study of law in the city of New York, when the war began... To my surprise and delight, around the camp fires of the First Company, Richmond Howitzers, I found throbbing an intellectual life as high and brilliant and intense as any I had ever known."


    Time Line:
    November 9, 1859 - George Wythe Randolph founds the Richmond Howitzers, a light artillery unit, and is elected captain. The Howitzers march to Charles Town to help guard John Brown during his trial and subsequent execution.

    1860 - The Richmond Howitzers become Company H, 1st Virginia Volunteer Regiment.

    May 3–9, 1861 - Three companies organize as the Richmond Howitzer Battalion and are mustered into Confederate service.

    September 13, 1861 - The 2nd and 3rd companies, Richmond Howitzers, become a part of the 1st Virginia Artillery Regiment.

    April 9, 1865 - The 1st Company, Richmond Howitzers, disbands near Red Oak Church, and the 2nd and 3rd companies surrender with the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House.

    April 10, 1871 - The Richmond Howitzers reorganize as a light artillery company of the Virginia militia.

    1917–1918 - The Richmond Howitzers serve as Company A, 111th Field Artillery Regiment, during World War I.

    February 3, 1941 - The Richmond Howitzers enter federal service as a part of the 111th Field Artillery Regiment in the 29th Infantry Division.

    1942–1945 - The Richmond Howitzers serve as Battery A, 111th Field Artillery Regiment, during World War II.



    1972 - The Richmond Howitzers become Battery A, 111th Field Artillery Regiment, in the Virginia National Guard.





    This Brigade's Chain of Command:
    Army - Army of Northern Virginia
    Corps - Longstreet's Command
    Division - McLaws' Division

    McLaws' Division Artillery

    Units which make up this Brigade:
    Manly's (NC) Battery
    Pulaski (GA) Artillery
    Richmond (Fayette) Artillery
    Richmond Howitzers, 1st Company
    Troup (GA) Artillery





    Information on a Battery:

    The battery was commanded by a captain; each section (a pair of guns) was commanded by a lieutenant. A section often operated as an independent unit for small-scale operations. Each gun was under the command of a sergeant, with two corporals, one the gunner and the other in charge of the caisson. Though only seven or eight cannoneers were necessary to serve a piece, it took 25 to 30 men to keep a single gun in the field and in operating condition.

    CAPTAIN (Battery Commander)

    Had overall command, control, and responsibility for the training, serviceability, and combat operation of the battery's personnel and equipment. He was not only the chief recruiter of the company, but also used his influence to acquire horses and other material, through means outside normal requisitions, to keep his battery in the best possible condition. Depending on the organization of the army at a particular time, the captain received his orders from either an artillery battalion commander, a division "Chief of Artillery", or an infantry brigade commander; ranking from major to brigadier general respectively. The captain had command over as many as 170 men and 98 horses in a six gun battery with six horse teams. In a four gun battery with four horse teams he had to have a minimum of 71 men and 45 horses to function efficiently. Most artillery officers were very slow to receive promotion due to the relatively light casualties and "turnover" in the long arm as compared to the infantry.

    FIRST & SECOND LIEUTENANT (Section Chiefs)

    Had command of, and responsibility for, their respective sections consisting of two platoons (40 men top average), and their equipment (two cannon, two caissons, four limbers, and 20 to 30 horses). The section chiefs received their orders from the captain and performed various additional duties such as: brigade/division artillery inspector; requisitioning ammunition, clothing, harness, tools, and tentage; battalion officer of the day. Occasionally a section from a battery was ordered out on picket duty or a special detail with a small infantry force. This gave the lieutenant good training and experience in independent command - a chance to catch a commander's eye. Lieutenants were often assigned to supervising the construction of small bridges or earthworks. On the march they rode abreast of their sections to keep the proper intervals and to check straggling. During battle a section chief sometimes dismounted to direct his section's fire on order of the captain, otherwise he directed the section from horseback. All officers as well as sergeants were mounted in a field battery, many times on their personal mounts. In the event the captain was absent, the senior lieutenant took command of the battery. In many instances, especially in four gun batteries, when a senior lieutenant took the command permanently he was not promoted, but finished the war as senior First Lieutenant, Commanding.

    SECOND LIEUTENANT (Chief of the line of Caissons)

    The junior officer of a battery had command of, and responsibility for all the caissons and ordnance (cartridges and projectiles). The personnel under his direction included the chiefs of caisson (junior corporals), the drivers, and any extra men assigned him. This officer was also frequently assigned the additional duty of adjutant. During battle his duties were to insure maximum protection of the caissons, their teams, and his men from hostile fire - yet keep them in close enough proximity to the battery and battle lines that the demand for ammunition could be satisfied quickly.

    FIRST SERGEANT (Orderly Sergeant)

    The ranking staff NCO worked for, and answered to, the captain only. He carried out all details desired by the captain that pertained to the company, not an individual segment of it. He assisted the captain in the supervision of the company's operations and was responsible for the administration work of the battery. He prepared reports, called roll, maintained the fatigue and duty rosters, and made recommendations on personnel actions. He also assigned, assisted, supervised, and checked the various details such as: posting guards, equipment repair, stable call, and horse grooming. He was the overseer of training and discipline, and instructed the sergeants on their NCO duties. During battle he had no combat station, but stayed near the captain and carried out any orders issued him. If the battery happened to be short an officer due to leave, sickness, or death, the first sergeant took up the duties of the chief of the line of caissons by direction of the captain. He remained assigned until a replacement was transferred in, or more often, he was elected and/or permanently promoted the junior lieutenant. Only in extreme necessity would the first sergeant have command of a section.

    CORPORALS (Gunners)

    Had command of, and responsibility for the men and equipment of a gun detachment. The detachment personnel consisted of the cannoneers (a minimum of six, maximum of ten) and the equipment included one cannon and its limber. On the road they marched near their pieces with their cannoneers. Here they were able to check straggling and work to keep their respective pieces well up in traveling order. During battle each carried out the orders of his chief of the piece. He aimed and sighted the piece and gave the orders for its combat firing . According to the section chief he controlled the rate of fire, much of which depended on the quick sighting of the piece, as this usually took longer than the loading operation due to the recoil. The corporals, like the sergeants, were in order of seniority. The senior half of the corporals were the gunners, the junior half the chiefs of caisson.

    PRIVATES (Cannoneers)

    Had active participation in the loading and firing of the piece they were assigned, and were trained according to numbers that described the duties of each particular gun position. Though each was trained in a priority position, they were generally trained on all positions and also that of driver. The cannoneers received their battle commands from the gunner with the chief of the piece supervising the overall action of the detachment. On campaigns they marched aside their respective piece and were continually lending muscle to the pieces in mud, snow, swamps, and steep grades. In emergencies and on order of the captain, they mounted the limbers and caissons for quick transportation or disposition on the battlefield. This mode was not used, however, on ordinary marches or while under artillery fire. Horses quickly fatigued with the added weight and by 1862 both armies issued general orders for the cannoneers to march with their pieces.






    Cannon Crew
    Eight cannoneers are needed to fire field pieces. Five are at the gun--the gunner and cannoneers 1, 2, 3, 4. The gunner is in charge of the piece, he gives the commands and does the aiming. Cannoneers 1-4 actually load, clean and fire the gun. Cannoneer 5 runs the ammunition from the limber to the gun. Cannoneers 6 and 7 prepare ammunition and cut the fuses.


    Ammunition

    Shot
    Cast iron with no explosive. Used against cavalry, troops in a column, buildings and other solid objects. More accurate than shell or spherical case with a longer range.


    Shell
    Round, hollow projectile with a powder-filled cavity. Fused; exploded into 5-12 large pieces. Loud air burst terrorized troops and horses.


    Spherical case
    Developed by British General Henry Shrapnel. Hollow shell with powder and 40-80 musket balls that exploded in all directions. Fused; used 500- 1,500 yards. More effective than shell, but more difficult to manufacture.



    Canister
    Tin can containing 27 iron balls packed in sawdust. Tin can ripped open at the muzzle and showered the balls directly at the troops. Good for repelling the enemy at close range--50-300 yards. For more devastating effect, could be used in double load. Turned cannon into giant shotgun.








    https://warofrights.com/CT_ViewCompa...panyToolHeader
    http://steamcommunity.com/groups/RichmondhowitzersA





    Company Roster:

    Commanding Officer: Captain H. Love

    Left section
    1st Lieutenant: Dutch

    6-Pdr.
    Sergeant
    Private Bobby J. Clint
    Private Jake the Snake
    Private J. Grisby
    Private Agostinelli
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private

    10-Pdr Parrott
    Sergeant
    Private Jason Bjorn
    Private Mc. munn
    Private Nick
    Private Maciej
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private

    Right section
    1st Lieutenant: Hawsley

    6-Pdr
    Sergeant
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private

    10-Pdr Parrott
    Sergeant
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private
    Private


    Last edited by Dutchconfederate; 10-05-2017 at 11:29 AM.

  2. #2

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    Welcome to the CSA! Best of luck!
    To the Colors!

    Captain Lance Rawlings
    Company K, 38th North Carolina, Pender's Brigade, A.P. Hill's Division, Jackson's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
    http://www.warofrightsforum.com/show...lina-Boys-quot


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    Thank you Captain.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dutchconfederate View Post
    Thank you Captain.
    You're welcome! Now go and blow the yanks minds.
    To the Colors!

    Captain Lance Rawlings
    Company K, 38th North Carolina, Pender's Brigade, A.P. Hill's Division, Jackson's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
    http://www.warofrightsforum.com/show...lina-Boys-quot


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    Welcome to the CSA! For Southern rights!

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    Welcome to the Confederacy!

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    Quote Originally Posted by James Kipler View Post
    Welcome to the CSA! For Southern rights!
    Quote Originally Posted by Saris View Post
    Welcome to the Confederacy!
    Thank you both! Glad to be with such friendly people.

  8. #8

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    Looking for at least 8 more members :-) Must be some guys out there who like the Artillery!
    Edited:



    I have 10 members looking for more to join! This battery has some special history to it! I would love to have folk from Richmond joining!
    Last edited by Dutchconfederate; 12-27-2016 at 12:56 PM. Reason: updated number of members

  9. #9

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    For those who are interested but don't want to sit around waiting. We don't have to, if you have acces we can drill as infantry or fall in with one of the other fine infantry companies around.

    Join the Richmond Howitzers Battery A today!

  10. #10

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    Welcome to the Confederacy!
    Colonel - James Dixon,
    Commander of Eagle Brigade,
    Second Corps Union Army


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