]History of the 114th
The 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. They were notable for their colorful Americanized version of the Zouave uniform worn in emulation of certain French light-infantry units that became world-famous during France's colonization of North Africa, the Crimean War, and the Second War of Italian Independence fought in the years prior to the American Civil War. The regiment was the brain-child of Charles H. T. Collis, an Irish immigrant who settled in Philadelphia becoming a prominent young lawyer. Collis initially raised only a small company of men calling them the "Zouaves d'Afrique" which served while attached to other regiments. They saw action in the 1862 Shenandoah Valley Campaign, the Battle of Cedar Mountain, and the Battle of Antietam. The "Zouaves d'Afrique" were much admired for their military bearing and prowess in battle to the point that it was decided to raise a full-sized regiment which was given the numeric designation of 114th Volunteer Infantry.
There were plenty of Zouave regiment during the civil war, arguably the most famous Union Zouave regiments were from New York and Pennsylvania: the 5th New York Volunteer Infantry, "Duryee's Zouaves" (after its first colonel, Abram Duryee), the 114th Pennsylvania Infantry; "Collis's Zouaves" (after their colonel, Charles H. T. Collis); and the 11th New York Volunteer Infantry, the "Fire Zouaves". The 11th New York was initially led by Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth, until his death in 1861.
This monument, dedicated on July 2, 1886, marks where the 114th Pennsylvania Infantry was positioned during the heaviest fighting on the Second Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 2, 1863). The regiment, known as the "Collis Zouaves" after their Colonel, Charles H.T. Collis, was notably attired in the bright red pants of the French Zouave soldier during the Campaign. On July 2 it was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Frederick F. Cavada (Colonel Collis having been wounded at Chancellorsville). The regiment was first positioned behind artillery pieces in support, and spent some of the day lying prone to escape the Confederate artillery fire. When the Confederates attacked, the regiment was quickly moved across Emmitsburg Road to protect the Union Batteries there, and formed a line at the Sherfy Farmhouse in conjunction with the 57th Pennsylvania Infantry. The Confederate advance then tore through the 114th Pennsylvania, sending the unit streaming back in retreat, which unhinged the Union line. Lt. Colonel Cavada succumbed to exhaustion early during the retreat, and was captured, being unable to run. The remnants of the unit came under command of Captain Edward R. Bowen, who rallied the survivors around its flag several times during its retreat to Cemetery Ridge. The men of the 114th Pennsylvania were unable to rejoin their brigade until the morning of July 3rd. On that day, the Third of the Battle, they remained in the Woods until sent to the Union center to support Cowen's Battery during Pickett's Charge. After the repulse of the Confederate attack, Captain Bowen detailed some of his men to retrieve weapons abandoned by the Rebels. His men gathered over 300 arms from the fields in their front. The 114th Pennsylvania Infantry, with 296 men at the start of the Battle, lost 19 men killed and 76 wounded.
114th Battle Honours