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Thread: 38th North Carolina Battalion Companies A, F, H, & K

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    Sep 2016
    North Carolina, United States

    38th North Carolina Battalion Companies A, F, H, & K


    The point of contact for any unit specific questions, event ideas, or proposals is myself. Add me on Steam for correspondence:

    A Short Introduction:

    Hello, thank you for looking at the 38th North Carolina Battalion!

    The 38th NC mustered into service in February of 1862 and moved to Virginia that April under Gregg's Brigade. On June 14, 1862, the unit was assigned to William Dorsey Pender's Brigade of A.P. Hill's Light Division. It would remain as such until Appomattox. The 38th NC fought in every campaign from Seven Days to Appomattox.

    As representatives of this unit, we will do our best to perform drill and tactics with all possible authenticity. We will use Hardee's Revised drill manual and meet for scheduled drill in-game. This will be vital to be one of the best units out there. We are affiliated and are part of A.P. Hill's Light Division, so if you're looking for the most authentic you can get, enlist! The willing-to-learn and enthusiastic are desired to take up arms in your State's defense. I look forward to seeing all of you in the field!

    Unit Details

    Company Officers

    Company K: Capt. Rawlings

    Engagements of the 38th NC

    Seven Day Battles - June 25 - July 1, 1862
    Gaines Mill - June 27, 1862
    White Oak Wamp - June 30, 1862
    Malvern Hill - July 1, 1862
    South Mountain - Sept 14, 1862
    Antietam- Sept 17, 1862
    Fredricksburg - Dec 13, 1862
    Chancellorsville - May 1-4, 1863
    Gettysburg - July 1-3, 1863
    Falling Waters - July 10, 1863
    Bristoe Campaign - Oct-Dec 1863
    Mine Run Campaign - Nov - Dec 1863
    The Wilderness - May 5-6 1864
    Spotsylvania Court House - May 8-21 1864
    North Anna - May 22-26 1864
    Cold Harbor - June 1-3 1864
    Petersburg Siege - June 1864 - April 1865
    Globe Tavern - August 18 - 21 1864
    Ream's Station - Aug 25, 1864
    Fort Harrison - Sept 29-30, 1864
    Jones Farm - Sept 30, 1864
    Hatchers Run - Feb 5-7, 1865
    Appomattox Court House - April 9, 1865

    Want to Join the Ranks?

    In order to join the 38th North Carolina Company K, you must be eligible by these standards, or have the means to become eligible.

    Must be over 18 years of age
    Must be mature, responsible, and obedient to orders
    Must have or get a Discord account
    Must be willing to learn and practice Hardee's Drill Manual with the company

    If you meet these requirements, follow these instructions:

    Step 1: Fill out and post the recruit application on the 38th North Carolina Battalion Steam Group. (link below)

    Step 2: Add [38NC.K] Capt. Rawlings (myself) on Steam to discuss the unit before joining. Your friends list will grow very rapidly soon after. An applicant CANNOT be accepted until this step is complete.

    Step 3: Congratulations, you’ve been accepted into the brotherhood of the Carolina Boys. Now you must volunteer on the Company Tool for the company you desire to be in.

    Step 4: Attend 3 events in game to be assigned a platoon.1st Platoon is where the most active members with access are assigned to. 2nd Platoon is also reserved for those with access, but are unable to commit as much time as those in 1st Platoon. If you do not have current access, you will not be placed in a platoon until access is gained. But don’t worry, we play more than just War of Rights!

    A NOTE ON PLATOONS: We are administratively organized with platoon assignment relating to activity, however in the field it does not matter which administrative platoon you are in, the platoon break will be made relative to the size of the company no matter if there are more men from a certain platoon. The field platoons will be even numbered to each other as best they can. For example, if 6 men from 1st platoon (administrative) and 4 men from 2nd platoon (administrative) come to an event, they will form up (doesn't matter who's next to who) and the (field) platoon break will be at the center of that formation.

    Step 5: Who am I kidding, there is no step 5. Welcome to the 38th North Carolina!



    38th North Carolina Company K Drill Guide

    This guide contains commonly used maneuvers and how to command them using Hardee’s Light Infantry Drill Manual. It is designed for anyone, from the newest recruit to the Colonel of the regiment, wanting a solid understanding of the manual without having to dissect the entire manual. Look at the back of this guide for command guide.

    Posts of Company Officers
    A “post” is any given position in a company.
    Captain: Right of company, touching with his left elbow.
    First Sergeant: Right of company, rear rank (behind the captain). The first sergeant is also known as the “covering sergeant” because he “covers” the captain. “Cover” simply means to be directly behind someone. The first sergeant moves into the front rank, where the captain was, if the captain steps away from the company.
    Second Sergeant: Left of company, touching with right elbow.
    All other officers are “file closers,” which means they are two paces behind the company, to keep the company together. This will be a very important role in War of Rights, due to lack of awareness and peripheral vision as well as physical contact.
    Corporals are always posted in the front rank, one on each end of the company, next to the sergeants, and one at the end of each platoon break.

    There are three kinds of commands.
    1. The command of caution, which is attention
    2. The preparatory command, which indicates the movement about to be executed.
    3. The EXECUTION command, on which the maneuver is executed.
    Example: We are in a battle line, and we wish to march straight forward, nothing fancy. The command would be:
    1. Attention. 2. Company. 3. Forward. 4. MARCH.
    In this situation, attention company is the caution command, forward is the preparatory, and march is the command of execution.

    Forming the Company
    A company will always be formed in two ranks. There is much discussion about how to form the company, because it was never recorded in a manual, though we are given a few hints. We will practice two versions. The first is simple.
    1.Company 2. In two ranks-FALL IN
    At this command, the company simply creates two ranks forming on the first sergeant, and continues to form to his left until all men are in rank.
    The other way to form the company, which would be done starting with one rank, is as follows:
    1. FALL-IN 2. In two ranks, form company 3. Company 4. Right-FACE 5. MARCH 5. FRONT 6. In each rank, count TWOS.
    At command 1, the entire company falls in on the first sergeant, in one rank. Command 2 tells the company what they are about to do. At command 3-4, the entire company (excluding the first sergeant) faces to the right. At command 5, the man who is now facing the first sergeant will go to the sergeant’s rear, but stay right-faced. The following man will dress to the first sergeant, and the man behind him will then go to his right, to be in the rear rank when the company is fronted. This goes on until each man is either in a front or rear rank. It will look like the company has done a “in two ranks, right face.” Then the company will be formed at the command FRONT, which is a left face in this situation. The last thing to do is to count off.

    To Open and Close Ranks
    During inspections, parades, and the manual of arms, it is desirable to separate the rear rank from the front rank, giving ample space for commands to be executed without awkward movement. The company will be at ordered arms to begin with, and at the command given, the rear rank will march four paces backward, to align themselves with the first and second sergeant. The command is as follows:
    1. Attention. 2. Company 3. Shoulder-ARMS 4. To the rear open order. 5. MARCH.
    At the fourth command, the first and second sergeant will set the line for the rear rank, four paces back. At the fifth command the reaer rank will march rearward to the line set by the sergeants. Once the rear rank is aligned, the sergeants will assume their positions in the front rank.
    When the company is to be reformed, the command is simply:
    1. Rear rank. 2. Shoulder-ARMS 3. Close order 4. MARCH
    At which the rear rank will simply walk back into line.

    Dress and Guide
    The term “dress” is used to tell the company what “anchor point” they are to align themselves on. The following are the main “dresses” you should familiarize yourself with.
    1. Company 2. Right-DRESS
    On a right dress, the company aligns themselves on the first sergeant and/or captain. So basically the entire company shifts to the right until all spaces are filled.
    1. Company 2. Left-DRESS
    This is just like right dress, but to shifting down to the left.
    1. Company 2. Center-DRESS
    This dress is used when the company is operated in a regiment, with other companies. You can tell the center because that is where the colors (flags) are placed.
    1. Company 2. DRESS ON THE COLORS
    This simply means to shift towards the colors, which depending on your place in line, could be to your right or left.
    1. Company 2. DRESS ON __________________
    You can fill this blank with nearly anything, though it is typically used to dress on another company.
    The nice thing about dressing is that it is mostly, self-explanatory.
    The term “guide” simply means to base your movements according to what guide is called. For example:
    1. Company 2. Guide-LEFT
    This tells the men to stay to the left side, and to remain in line using the right side as the anchor. You can also do this on the left. The captain and first sergeant will place themselves on the right or left of the company according to what guide has been called. The company will follow the captain and first sergeant, turning when they turn, swerving when they serve. If the command is given to guide, and the captain makes a right turn, you follow, even though there was no “by files right” command given.

    Manual of Arms
    The ranks will be opened when the manual of arms is done. An asterisk is placed by the arms not yet in-game. Shoulder arms will always be done in between each position.
    Present-ARMS* Shoulder-ARMS
    Raise-ARMS* Shoulder-ARMS
    Support-ARMS* Shoulder-ARMS
    Fix Bayonet Shoulder-ARMS
    Charge Bayonet Shoulder-ARMS
    Trail-ARMS* Shoulder-ARMS
    Unfix Bayonet Shoulder-ARMS
    Secure-ARMS Shoulder-ARMS
    In-Place-REST Attention. Shoulder-ARMS
    Parade-REST Attention. Shoulder-ARMS

    As you can see, after the two “rests” (not typically put in the manual of arms, but I went ahead and added them) the first command is attention. This brings the soldier back to ordered arms, at which point he will go to shouldered arms upon command.


    There are multiple ways to fire at an enemy. We will begin with the basic firings, and eventually we will cover more advanced techniques like “fire by rank, by platoon.”
    First, there are three types of firings. The direct fire, which is straight ahead. The right oblique fire, which is approximately 45 degrees to the right, and its opposite, the left oblique.
    Then there are the different ways to fire: by company, by rank, by files, and at will.
    The fire by company is when the entire company gives off one volley. The command is:
    1. Company 2. Fire by company. 3. Ready. 4. Aim. 5. FIRE! 6. Load
    After a fire by company, the soldiers will remain at the ready until told to aim and fire again. In short, if you have already fired, be at the ready when reloaded.
    If you wanted to add that the company would be firing at an oblique, you would place that command right before aim, so they know where to aim.
    Next there is fire by rank, where the commanding officer will fire the two ranks separately, always beginning with the rear rank.
    1. Company 2. Fire by rank 3. Rear rank 4. Ready 5. Aim 6. FIRE! 7. Load. 8. Front rank 9. Ready 10. Aim 11. FIRE! 12. Load
    Then there is fire by files, where each file, starting from the right (always) will aim and fire. This fire can be thought of as a domino effect. After a fire by file, the company will automatically go to fire at will, which is where the individual soldier loads and fires at his own discretion, while staying in line.
    1. Company 2. Fire by files 3. Commence-FIRE!
    The fire at will following a fire by files will continue until cease fire is called. At this command, the company will load and shoulder arms.

    The line of battle, which is the formation of a company (shoulder to shoulder, two ranks) when putting the most fire on the enemy. However, it is rather slow and difficult to march in this formation. To solve this problem, the company can use facings. A facing at its most basic definition is a stationary turn. There are left faces, right faces, about faces, and right-about faces. Facings are the sole purpose that the company counts twos.
    Right Face:
    1. Company 2. Right-FACE
    A rather simple command, but with a lot of moving parts. At this command, every soldier will face to the right, with the number 1’s standing fast, and the number 2’s moving up and two the right of the number 1’s. This creates several lines of four men all facing to the right of the company’s front. This formation is known as “column of fours.”
    A Note on Fronts
    The front is simply the battle line of a company, and the regular formation of the company (two ranks, shoulder to shoulder). On a right face, you would have to left face to get back into the company battle line, so the front is to your left. The opposite is true for a left face.
    Left Face:
    On a left face, the entire company faces to the left, with the number 2 men standing fast, and the number 1 men stepping up to the number 2 man’s left. This creates a column of fours facing left, with the company front to the right.
    Faces Without Doubling:
    If it is desired to remain in two ranks, and not create a column of fours, the command is simply:
    1. Company 2. In two ranks 3. Left (or right) 4. FACE
    There is also the about face. The about face is simply turning around 180 degrees, always turning to the right, to remain uniform.
    1. Company 2. About-FACE
    The company is now facing to its rear, this is also known as being inverted, because the front rank is behind the rear rank. The company front is behind now. To get back into the line of battle/front (with the front rank being in front of the rear rank) the command can be either:
    1. Company 2. About- FACE
    1. Company 2. FRONT
    The right about-face is the same as the about-face, but used only while already marching.

    There are multiple ways to march, as will be covered in the following. If at right shoulder shift when halted, always bring the piece to shoulder arms. Never be standing still while at right shoulder shift unless when conducting the manual of arms.
    To march forward, in any configuration (faced or fronted):
    1. Company, forward 3. MARCH
    To make the company take a left or right 90 degree turn (while in a column of fours or column of twos):
    1. Company 2. By files left (or right) 3. MARCH
    To stop a march:
    1. Company 2. HALT
    You can also march a company at the obliques (left or right 45 degrees angle). You keep your dress in this maneuver, so the entire company is not wheeling 45 degrees, but rather each man is turned 45 degrees.
    1. Company 2. At the left (or right) oblique 3. MARCH
    If you wanted the entire company to turn, you would do what is called a wheel. A wheel is turning the company on a fixed point. You can either halt the company or command forward march once the desired direction is reached.
    1. Company 2. Right (or left) wheel 3. MARCH
    We can also maneuver the company by the flank. This can be tricky, but it is rather simple in theory. First of all, a flank is either side of you, your right or left side. While in a marching line of battle, the commanding officer may wish to do a right face (column of fours) while still marching. This is done by the command:
    1. Company 2. By the right flank 3. MARCH
    To get back into the line of battle, while still marching, you can march by the left flank, which will be like fronting the company if you were halted.
    1. Company 2. By the left flank 3. MARCH
    Now you are back in your battle line.
    If you are marching in a column of fours (being right faced/marching by the right flank) and the enemy appears on your right, it is necessary to change your front to meet them. Your front while marching by the right flank is on your left, but you wish to change it to the right. To do this, the command is:
    1. On the right, by file into line 2. MARCH
    At this command, the rear rank will halt where they are, and the front rank men will continue to march forward, and right face and continue marching onto line with the captain and first sergeant. It is important to remember your place in line in order for this maneuver to be executed well. Once the majority of the front rank is on line, the rear rank will march forward and fall into line behind their file partner (the front rank man who is always sin front of them, vice versa for the front rank man). You now have a battle line facing to what was previously your right.
    If the enemy is right in front of you while marching in a column of fours, you need to create the battle line directly in front of you. The command to do such is:
    1. By company into line 2. MARCH
    At this point, the captain and first sergeant set the position where the captain desires the battle line to be, and the column continues to march forward, each taking their position in the line of battle.

    PART II: Skirmishing

    General Principles of Skirmishing

    When executing skirmish drill, it is important to realize that the precision involved with regular company drill, or “in closed ranks,” should not be adhered to. Hardee’s states that using precision in skirmish drill interferes with the prompt execution of said maneuvers.

    When a company is sent out as a skirmish line in front of a battalion or larger, their movements should be based off what the battalion is doing. A reserve company may be placed between the battalion and the skirmish line in order to support the skirmishers and replace them if needed. It is noted that even the reserves should find cover and take it whenever possible.

    Skirmishers can carry their firearm as they please, with no regulation.

    Historically, the movements of skirmishers are commanded by bugle, though obviously, this may not be feasible in War of Rights.

    There are two ways to deploy skirmishers: on a file (forward), or by the flank (side). When skirmishing, it is crucial to subdivide the company into platoons, sections, and comrades in battle. A company can be deployed forward on its right, left, center, or any other named file; or on its right or left flank.

    When cover presents itself, TAKE IT. When deployed, it is typical that there be approximately 5-10 paces between each skirmisher, going with the lesser when on open ground.

    To Deploy Forward as Skirmishers

    When acting as an individual company and not with a regimental line, it is beneficial to deploy only one platoon as skirmishers and hold the other platoon in reserve. Of course, in many occasions, it can also be beneficial to deploy the entire company. Both methods hold the same principles, the only difference is how many men you have.

    1. First platoon (or second), as skirmishers. 2. On the left (right, or center) file, take intervals. 3. MARCH (or double quick, MARCH)

    As soon as this command is given, the 2nd Lt. and 3rd Lt. will place themselves two paces behind the first platoon, and the 5th Sgt. will place himself in front of the first platoon’s center. The 4th Sgt. will place himself on the left of the first platoon. The Captain will indicate to the 4th Sgt. where he wished him to direct. The 1st Lt. will place himself in front of the second platoon and command:

    1. Second platoon, backward 2. MARCH

    The 1st Lt. will have the second platoon march backwards three paces, and then halt. The 2nd Sgt. will place himself on the left of the platoon, and the 3rd Sgt. on the right.
    At the command MARCH, the left comrades in battle (the group of four that have the left file in it) will march straight ahead, guided by the 4th Sgt., to the spot designated by the Captain. The comrades in battle will march at an angle, at the double quick, until there is approximately 20 paces between each comrades in battle. Once the proper spacing it reached, each comrades in battle will come onto line with the comrade in battle containing the left file. The right guide will arrive with the last group of four.

    Once the line is reached and every group of four is on line, the Captain will command the skirmishers to halt. At the command halt, each group if four will automatically deploy as skirmishers. Any group not on line when the halt is given will run onto line and conform to the command. If fired open before the line is set, each group of fire can be deployed individually.

    How to Deploy as Comrades in Battle: When a group of four men is told to halt after being sent out as skirmishers, they deploy using the following maneuvers:

    1. The front rank, number 2 man remains in his place.
    2. The rear rank, number 2 man goes to the left 5 paces on steps forward onto line.
    3. The front rank, number 1 man extends right 10 paces.
    4. The rear rank, number 1 man comes onto line and extends 5 paces.

    The end result should have, from right to left observing from behind the line: rear rank 2, front rank 2, rear rank 1, front rank 1 as its order on line; with each man having 5 paces separation.

    As soon as the line is set, the NCO’s accompanying the line will fall back behind it ten paces.

    Again, if there is cover, TAKE IT. Regularity in alignment should yield to the important advantage of cover.

    While the line is formed, the 1st Lt. will take the second platoon approximately 150 paces behind the skirmish line, holding that distance until further instructed. The Captain will place himself 80 paces behind the skirmish line with a bugler and four men from the reserve platoon.

    When deploying off the right file, it is the same as the left, but inverted. The rightmost group will go straight, and the groups to the left will march at an angle. When deploying by the center file, the group with the center file will go straight, and the groups on either side will march out at an angle.

    A Note on Bayonets for Skirmishing

    Regular troops carry their bayonets in their scabbards, likewise with skirmishers. Bayonets are to be fixed only as the Captain desires.

    To Deploy on the Right or Left Flank

    Deploying on a flank is surprisingly simple, especially in light of deploying by a file. You can deploy on either the left flank or right flank. The command is as follows:

    1. Second (or first) platoon, as skirmishers. 2. By the right (or left) flank, take intervals. 3. MARCH

    At the first command, the 1st and 3rd Lt’s. will place themselves two paces behind the second platoon, and the 5th Sgt. would place himself in front of the second platoon, and the 3rd Sgt. will place himself on the right of the second platoon. The Captain will withdraw the first platoon 3 paces and halt them.

    At the command MARCH, the entire platoon but the far left comrades in battle will face to the right and begin marching. As soon as there is enough room to their right, the leftmost group will deploy. The second group, front rank number 2 man, will count 20 paces. Once the 20 paces are reached, he will call out “deploy!” and the group will face to the line and deploy. Once this is heard, the third group will begin counting, and so on.

    Once the line is set, prescribe to the postings of the deploying on a file example.

    You can even deploy on both flanks at the same time:

    1. Second platoon, as skirmishers. 2. By the right and left flanks, take intervals. 3. MARCH

    Use the same officer postings as previously used. At the command MARCH, the right section will face to the right, and the left section to the left. The comrades in battle on the right of the left section will stay stationary, and the spacing will be based off their position. The 1st and 3rd Lt’s. will guide the left section, and the 3rd and 2nd Sgt’s. will guide the right section. It is their job to ensure correct spacing.

    Extending and Closing Intervals

    The following command is used to extend a set line of skirmishers:

    1. By the left (or right) flank, ___ paces extend intervals. 2. MARCH

    At this command, the right group will stand fast while all the other groups face to the left. Each group should still have 5 paces between each man. Remember that extending is simply extending the separation between groups, not individual men.
    You use the same command to close intervals, replacing “extend” with “close.”


    Rallying is the term used to bring skirmishers back into either groups of four, individual sections, into platoons, as one company, or on a group, section, platoon or company.

    When a line is disturbed by scattered cavalry, the Captain should order bayonets to be fixed. If charged by cavalry, the Captain will command:

    Rally by fours!

    At this command, each four man group will return to each other as they would be in a battle line, each guarding with bayonet a different direction. If the Captain deems the groups of four to be too weak against the opposing force, the command will be given to:

    Rally by sections!

    The men will run as groups back together to form their separate sections and resume guarding with bayonets. Each section will form a square around the officers, with each section facing a different direction. If this is still insufficient, the command will be given:

    Rally by platoons! or Rally on the reserve!

    I find that the manual has the best explanation for rallying:

    “Rally by sections.
    132. At this command, the chiefs of sections will move rapidly on the centre group of their respective sections, or on any other interior group whose position might offer a shelter, or other particular advantage; the skirmishers will collect rapidly at a run on this group, and without distinction of numbers. The men composing the group on which the formation is made, will immediately form square, as heretofore explained, and elevate their pieces, the bayonets uppermost, in order to indicate the point on which the rally is to be made. The other skirmishers, as they arrive, will occupy and fill the open angular spaces between these four men, and successively rally around this first nucleus, and in such manner as to form rapidly a company circle. The skirmishers will take as they arrive, the position of charge bayonet, the point of the bayonet more elevated, and will cock their pieces in this position. The movement concluded, the two exterior ranks will fire as occasion may offer, and load without moving the feet.
    133. The captain will move rapidly with his guard, wherever he may judge his presence most necessary.
    134. The officers and sergeants will be particular to observe that the rally is made in silence, and with promptitude and order; that some pieces in each of their subdivisions be at all times loaded, and that the fire is directed on those points only where it will be most effective.
    135. If the reserve should be threatened, it will form into a circle around its chief.
    136. If the captain, or commander of a line of skirmishers formed of many platoons, should judge that the rally by section does not offer sufficient resistance, he will cause the rally by platoons to be executed, and for this purpose, will command:
    Rally by platoons.
    137. This movement will be executed according to the same principles, and by the same means, as the rally by sections. The chiefs of platoon will conform to what has been prescribed for the chiefs of section.
    138. The captain wishing to rally the skirmishers on the reserve, will command:
    Rally on the reserve.
    139. At this command, the captain will move briskly on the reserve; the officer who commands it will take immediate steps to form square; for this purpose, he will cause the half sections on the flanks to be thrown perpendicularly to the rear; he will order the men to come to a ready.
    140. The skirmishers of each section, taking the run, will form rapidly into groups, and upon that man of each group who is nearest the centre of the section. These groups will direct themselves diagonally towards each other, and in such manner as to form into sections with the greatest possible rapidity while moving to the rear; the officers and sergeants will see that this formation is made in proper order, and the chiefs will direct their sections upon the reserve, taking care to unmask it to the right and left. As the skirmishers arrive, they will continue and complete the formation of the square begun by the reserve, closing in rapidly upon the latter, without regard to their places in line; they will come to a ready without command, and fire upon the enemy; which will also be done by the reserve as soon as it is unmasked by the skirmishers.
    141. If a section should be closely pressed by cavalry while retreating its chief will command halt; at this command, the men will form rapidly into a compact circle around the officer, who will re-form his section and resume the march, the moment he can do so with safety.
    142. The formation of the square in a prompt and efficient manner, requires coolness and activity on the part of both officers and sergeants.”
    Skirmishers can also rally on the battalion, forming to them.

    Firing as Skirmishers

    When acting as skirmishers, the command to commence fire! will be given. However, there is a little more to it than just firing at will. Each file partner must work with each other to ensure that one of them is loaded or at least nearly loaded at all times. So, when the command is given to commence firing, the front rank man will fire and begin reloading. Once he is loaded, he will let his file partner know, who will then take a shot, reload, and inform the front rank man he is ready. This goes on until a cease fire is called.

    To Advance or Retreat as Skirmishers

    To advance when in a skirmish line, the command is given:

    1. Skirmishers 2. Rise. 3. Skirmish in advance. 4. MARCH

    At this command, the file partner that is loaded will bound forward a few paces and fire when his partner is ready, then his partner will bound ahead of him a few paces and continue the process. The same principles are true for retreating, but the command would be:

    1. Skirmishers 2. Rise. 3. Skirmish in retreat. 4. MARCH


    To Form the Company:
    Option A: 1. Company 2. In two ranks-FALL IN
    Option B: 1. FALL-IN 2. In two ranks, form company 3. Company 4. Right-FACE 5. MARCH 5. FRONT 6. In each rank, count TWOS.

    To Open Ranks:
    1. Attention. 2. Company 3. Shoulder-ARMS 4. To the rear open order 5. MARCH.

    To Close Ranks:
    1. Rear rank. 2. Shoulder-ARMS 3. Close order 4. MARCH

    To Dress:
    1. Company 2. Right (left, or center)-DRESS
    1. Company 2. DRESS ON THE COLORS (or about anything)

    To Fire by Company:
    1. Company 2. Fire by company. 3. Ready. 4. Aim. 5. FIRE! 6. LOAD

    To Fire by Rank:
    1. Company 2. Fire by rank 3. Rear rank 4. Ready 5. Aim 6. FIRE! 7. LOAD 8. Front rank 9. Ready 10. Aim 11. FIRE! 12. LOAD

    To Fire by Files:
    1. Company 2. Fire by files 3. Commence-FIRE!

    To Fire at Will:
    1. Company 2. Fire at will 3. Commence-FIRE!

    To Fire to the Right or Left:
    1. Company 2. Fire by (company, rank, or file) 3. Ready 4. At the (right or left) oblique 5. Aim 6. FIRE! 7. LOAD.

    To Face the Company:
    1. Company 2. Right (or left)-FACE

    To Face the Company without Doubling:
    1. Company 2. In two ranks (or without doubling) 3. Right (or left)- FACE

    To About Face the Company:
    1. Company 2. About- (or right-about if marching) FACE

    To March Forward:
    1. Company 2. Forward 3. MARCH

    To Halt the Company:
    1. Company 2. HALT

    To Turn 90 degrees (while in a column):
    1. Company 2. By files right (or left) 3. MARCH

    To March at a 45-degree Angle:
    1. Company 2. At the right (or left) oblique 3. MARCH

    To Wheel the Company:
    1. Company 2. Right (or left) wheel 3. MARCH

    To March by the Flank:
    1. Company 2. By the right (or left) flank 3. MARCH

    To Form the Line of Battle on the Right, while marching by the Right Flank:
    1. On the right, by file into line 2. MARCH

    To Form the Line of Battle Ahead of a Column:
    1. By company into line 2. MARCH


    Lieutenant Colonel George W. Flowers, of This Regiment, Writes Its Splended Record in the Army
    of Northern Virginia—Its Officers—Hoke, Armfield and Others Among Them—The Compliments It
    Received for Its Alacrity in Re-Enlisting in 1864—the Regiment Did Some Splendid Fighting with
    Jackson, Longstreet and Hill—Its Record at Gettysburg—A Carefully-Written and Valuable
    Addition to the State’s War History.

    The Thirty-eight Regiment of North Carolina Troops was formed of volunteers who enlisted for
    twelve months, and was organized at Camp Mangum, near Raleigh, N.C., Jan. 17, 1862, under
    the command of Maj. J. J. Iredell, commander of the post. The regiment was composed of the
    following companies:

    Company A, “Spartan Band,” Duplin county—A. G. Mosely, captain. First lieutenant,
    D. G. Morrisey; second lieutenant, Alsa J. Brown; junior second lieutenant, D. M. Pearsall.

    Company B. “Men of Yadkin,” Yadkin county—C. L. Cook, captain. First lieutenant, R. F.
    Armfield; second lieutenant, A. W. Blackburn; junior second lieutenant, L. F. Haynes.

    Company C., “Sampson Farmers.” Sampson county—Peter B. Troublefield, captain.
    First lieutenant, R. F. Allen; second lieutenant, Jno. F. Wilson; junior second lieutenant, Hinton J.

    Company D, “Sampson Plowboys,” Sampson county—Jno. Ashford, captain. First
    lieutenant, R. Bell; second lieutenant, A. D. King; junior second lieutenant, H. C. Darden.

    Company E., “Richmond Boys,” Richmond county—Oliver H. Dockery, captain. First lieutenant,
    S. M. Ingaham; second lieutenant, D. G. McRae; junior second lieutenant, M. W. Covington.

    Company F, “Catawba Wildcats,” Catawba county—Joshua D. Little, captain. First
    lieutenant, D. McD. Young; second lieutenant, H. L. Roberts; junior second lieutenant, F. D.

    Company G, “Rocky Face Rangers,” Alexander county—G. W. Sharpe, captain. First lieutenant,
    John E. Rheim; second lieutenant George W. Flowers; junior second lieutenant, James W.

    Company H, “Uwharrie Boys,” Randolph county—Nosh Rush, captain. First lieutenant,
    L. D. Andrews; second lieutenant, J. N. Kearns; second junior lieutenant, N. H. Hopkins.

    Company I, “Cleveland Marksmen,” Cleveland county---O. P. Gardiner, captain. First
    lieutenant, G. Blanton; second lieutenant, D. Magness; junior second lieutenant, O. Beam.

    Company K, “Carolina Boys,” Cumberland county—M. McR. McLaughlin, captain. First lieutenant,
    Angus Shaw; second lieutenant, A. M. Smith; junior second lieutenant, D. A. Moore.

    The regiment was organized (Company K being absent,) by electing William J. Hoke, Lincoln
    county (captain of Company K, Bethel Regiment,) colonel; Captain Oliver H. Dokery, Richmond
    county, lieutenant colonel; Captain George W. Sharpe, Alexander county, major.

    The following officers were then appointed: Horace L. Robards, Lincoln county, quartermaster;
    Benjamin H. Sumner, Lincoln county, commissary; Miles M. Cowles, Yadkin county, adjutant;
    Peter W. Young, Granville county surgeon; J Stuart Devane, Duplin county, assistant surgeon;
    D. M. McIntyre, Duplin county, sergeant major; Marion Roseman, Catawba county, quartermaster
    sergeant; William C. Webb, Cleveland county, commissary sergeant; John W. Waters,
    Cleveland county, color sergeant; J. J. Johnson, Company H, S. B. Herring, Company C., F. A.
    Clifton, Company C, J. H. Irving, Company G. D. A. B lack, Company K, color guard; Rev.
    Julian P. Faison, Company A, chaplain; Lieut. R. W. Copell was elected captain of Company
    E, to succeed Captain Dockery; Lieut. John E. Rheim, Company G, was elected to succeed
    Captain Sharpe; George M. Yoder, Company F, was elected second lieutenant to succeed H. L.
    Robards; George W. Flowers, Company G, was elected first lieutenant to succeed Lieut Rheim;
    Oliver H. Patterson, second lieutenant, to succeed G. W. Flowers; D. G. McRae, Company E,
    was elected second lieutenant, to succeed Lieut. Copell.

    On the 10th of February, 1823 [sic.], the regiment was ordered to proceed to Washington,
    N.C.; but on reaching Goldsboro the order was changed and the regiment ordered to Halifax,
    thence to Hamilton. On February 13 under orders from General Gatlin, the troops returned to
    Halifax, and then proceeded to Weldon to defend the bridge at that point, reaching Camp
    Leavenworth on the east side of the river near Garysburg, on the 14th. The regiment remained
    here until the 18th, when it was ordered to Camp Floyd, on the west side of the river, near Weldon.
    While in Camp at this place there was much sickness and many deaths. On the 21st the
    regiment was ordered to Camp Vance, two miles east of Goldsboro, on the Wilmington and
    Weldon Railroad, and on the 22nd was attached to the Third Brigade, Army of North Carolina,
    commanded by Gen. Joseph R. Anderson. This brigade was composed of the first South
    Carolina Regiment, Col. Hamilton; Thirty-fourth North Carolina, Col. Leaventhorpe; Thirty-eighth
    North Carolina, Col. Hoke; Second Georgia Battalion, Capt. Doyle; Third Louisiana Battalion,
    Lieutenant Colonel Bridford. on April 8, the Forty-fifth Georgia, Colonel Hardiman, and on April
    10th, Forty-ninth Georgia, Colonel Lane were attached to the brigade.

    While here, the troops received news of the passage of the conscript law which gave some
    dissatisfaction, because they thought it unfair to hold twelve-month troops for a longer time, but
    after careful consideration they cheerfully acquiesced. On the 18th of April, 1862, General
    Holmes, in command at Goldsboro, ordered the regiment at Camp Mason to re-organize for the
    war. The result was as follows: Thos. S. Kenan, colonel, (did not accept); Wm. J. Hoke elected
    on 2rth; R. F. Armfield, lieutenant colonel, L. D. Andrews, major.

    Company A—A.G. Mosely, captain; D. D. Morrisey, first lieutenant; . E. Armstrong, second
    lieutenant; A. J. Brown, junior second lieutenant.

    Company B—C.L. Cook, captain; A. W. Blackburn, first lieutenant; L. F. Haynes, second
    lieutenant; J. B. Hare, junior second lieutenant.

    Company C—J.T. Wilson, captain; R. F. Allen, first lieutenant; Hudson, second lieutenant; J. W.
    Darden, junior second lieutenant.

    Company D—John Ashford, captain; R. R. Bell, first lieutenant; H. C. Darden, second lieutenant;
    J. W. Darden, junior second lieutenant.

    Company E—D. C. McRae, captain; S. M. Ingram, first lieutenant; Alfred Dockery, second
    lieutenant, M. T. Covington; Junior second lieutenant.

    Company F—D. McD. Youst, captain; F. D. Roseman, first lieutenant, A. J. Young, second
    lieutenant; Alonzo Deal, junior second lieutenant.

    Company G—G. W. Flowers, captain; O. H. Patterson, first lieutenant; W. A. Stephenson, second
    lieutenant; Abner Harrington, junior second lieutenant.

    Company H—W. L. Thornburg, captain; J. N. Kearns, first lieutenant; Marley Cranford, second
    lieutenant; Alexander Murdock, junior second lieutenant.

    Company I—O. P. Gardiner, captain; B. F. Hunt, first lieutenant; O. P. Beane, second lieutenant;
    W. C. Webb, junior second lieutenant.

    Company K—M.M. McLaughlin, captain; Angus Shaw, first lieutenant; A. M. Smith, second
    lieutenant; D. A. Monroe, junior second lieutenant.

    Miles M. Cowles, adjutant; W. R. Edwards, quartermaster (June 17, 1862); B. H. Sumner,
    commissary; J. L. Andrews, ordnance sergeant.

    During the war, in addition to those mentioned, the regiment had the following field officers:
    Colonel—John Ashford;
    Lieutenant Colonel—John Ashford, George W. Flowers;
    Major—John Ashford, M. McR. McLaughlin, George W. Flowers, J. T. Wilson;
    Adjutant—David M. McIntyre;
    Ensign—Wesley P. Matheson;
    Sergeant Major—Agrippa S. Hardister;
    Chaplain—Whitfield S. McDiarmld.
    At the time of the election Col. Kenan was in command of the Forty-third Regiment as lieutenant
    colonel, and April 24th received his commission as colonel of that regiment and therefore did not
    accept the command of the Thirty-eighth. As soon as the re-organization was completed, April
    24th, the regiment was ordered to proceed by rail to Richmond, and on the 27th it was ordered to
    Guinea Station, where on the 29th it was transferred to the Second Brigade, Gen. Matcy Gregg
    commanding, and ordered to Milford Station. The regiment was engaged in guarding the bridges
    on the Mattaponi, Wild Cat, North and South Anna runs until the 9th of May, when it was relieved
    by Col. Tansil, Third Virginia Artillery, and ordered to report to Gen. Grerg [sic.] at the Summit.
    The regiment was called May 12th, to meet the enemy, who had crossed the Rappahannock at
    Hamilton’s crossing, below Fredericksburg, but the enemy withdrew and no engagement ensued.
    This was the first time the regiment was in line of battle preparatory to fighting. The following day
    the troops for the first time fired on the enemy, a number of whom were in a boat below the city;
    all were killed except two or three, who swam ashore.

    About this time the soldiers were deprived of their tents and much suffering was caused by the
    extreme cold rains. The command remained near Fredericksburg until May 25th, when it set out
    on a march at sunset in the direction of Hanover Junction, marching all night and all next day
    through mud so that many of the soldiers lost their shoes and almost gave out from fatigue. The
    regiment camped ten miles north of Richmond May 27th, and afterwards did picket duty along the
    Chickahominy. On the 14th of June the Thirty-eighth was transferred to Gen. Wm. D. Pender’s
    Brigade, composed of the Thirty-eighth North Carolina, Col. W. J. Hoke; Thirty-fourth North
    Carolina, Col. R. H. Riddick; Twenty-second North Carolina, Col. James Conner; Sixteenth North
    Carolina, Col. McElroy. The Thirteenth North Carolina, Col. A. M. Scales, was attached in the
    winter. Pender’s Brigade formed the Sixth of the “Light Division” commanded by Gen. A. P. Hill.
    The division crossed Meadow bridge June 26h, and it was seen from scattered portfolios and other
    luxuries to which the Southern soldier was a stranger, that the Yankee picket at that place had
    fled with great precipitation. As soon as the Thirty-eighth had gotten a little beyond Mehanicsville
    it was saluted with heavy shelling. A line of battle was formed and the march continued until the
    order was given to charge the battery that was throwing the deadly missiles. The heat was intense
    and the double quick march exhausting but the charge was kept up over the open field until the
    regiment reached the summit of the last elevation when a farm house, yard and garden broke the
    line somewhat. the Yankee batteries were upon the summit of the opposite hill with their
    supporting infantry in their intrenchments, and the old field pines in front cut down and piled
    across the stumps which were left about three feet high, forming an almost impassible barrier.
    The Thirty eighth, alone and unsupported, charged down the hill, the long line of infantry playing
    upon it with a cross fire. On the soldiers charged, in the face of the fatal volleys, until the
    obstacles were reached, when the whole hue stopped and began returning the fire under every
    disadvantage. The men were falling rapidly and it was seen that to take the works was impossible.
    Capt. Thornburg and Adjutant Cowles were in front, urging the men forward. The retreat was
    ordered but the noise was so deafening nothing could be heard. Maj. Andrews reached Capt.
    Thornburg and Adjutant Cowles and gave tem the orders to retreat, after which the word was
    passed along the line and the retreat up the hill was begun, the enemy continuing their deadly
    firing. It was about sunset when the regiment reached safely the rear. Gen Pender in his report
    says: “I at once changed the direction of two of my regiments so as to bring them to the right
    of the artillery, and succeeded in getting in 150 or 200 yards of it before we were opened upon,
    but when they did open upon us it was destructive, and the obstacles so great in front, the creek
    and the mill dam, that after the Thirty-eighth North Carolina had reached these obstacles, and
    in less than 100 yards of the enemy’s rifle pits, they had to fall back. This regiment here
    advanced boldly and maintained its ground well. * * *”

    “I should state, while relating the incidents of this day’s battle, that Colonel Hoke, Thirty-eighth
    North Carolina, was wounded and had to leave the field. The adjutant of the Thirty-eighth was
    also wounded, but nobly maintained his post until after dark.”
    Lieut. Col. Armfield took command as soon as Col. Hoke was wounded, which was son after
    getting under fire. Adjutant Miles M. Cowles received a wound from which he soon died, the
    regiment losing one of its bravest officers. Lieut. Covington, Company E, and Lieut. Darden,
    Company D, were killed, and Lieuts. Dan. F. Roseman, Company F, and Angus Shaw,
    Company H, were severely wounded.
    In Company G, Capt. Flowers and Lieut Harrington were severely sounded, and out of 32 men in
    the company at the opening of the engagement, 27 were either killed or wounded. About 420
    men belonging to the regiment were engaged in the fight, the others being on picket. The loss
    was 152 in killed and wounded.
    Col. Hoke in his report speaks in highest terms of the conduct of Capt. B. H. Sumner, A.C.S.,
    Sergeant Major D. M. McIntyre, John Young, an attache to the regiment, and Edward Goldsmith,
    a drill master. The color bearer, John O. Waters, was severely wounded, but remained bravely
    at the head of the regiment and bore his colors through the fight, returning them safely. During
    the night the troops were collected as well as possible, and it was late before the Thirty-eighth
    was gotten together, when the worn-out soldiers slept on their arms. At early dawn the march
    was begun, the regiment passing over the spot where so many men were lost the evening before.
    The enemy fled and the Confederates marched through the deserted camp. General Hill in his
    report says: “It was a costly and useless sacrifice, for early the next morning our troops crossed
    the mill pond and the Federal forces, seeing their position turned, betook themselves to hasty

    The Federals made a stand as Gaines’ Mill, when the Thirty-eighth was engaged, and the soldiers,
    though weary and worn, behaved nobly. About sunset the shouting along the line announced the
    fact that the enemy was running and a victory was gained. After camping on the battlefield over
    night, the march was continued. Lieut. Col. Armfield being sick, Maj. L. D. Andrews was now in
    command. the regiment was engaged at Cold Harbor and Frazier’s Farm. At the latter place the
    Confederate troops fought with unusual bravery, not seeming to realize the presence of danger
    and vio-tory [sic] was again gained by the Confederates. The Southern soldiers were now all
    jubilant. McClellean’s “On to Richmond” was now changed to “On to Harrison’s Landing,” where
    the gunboats lay. The pursuit of the enemy was continued, and the next engagement was at
    Malvern Hill. The battle at this place was a very hard fought one, but the Thirty-eighth was not in
    the thickest of it, and did not lose very heavily. The enemy continued to flee, and were pursued
    to their gunboats at Harrison’s Landing. After remaining there for a few days, the division was
    ordered to Richmond, and it remained below that city until July 27, when Gen A. P. Hill’s division
    was attached to Jackson’s Corps, and marched to Gordonsville, Va. On August 7th Jackson
    moved from Gordonsville to confront Gen. Pope in the Valley, and on the 9th he fell upon Gen.
    Banks’ right flank at Cedar Mountain. At one time the day seemed doubtful. When the foe had
    well night crushed General Garnet, Branch went gallantly to his rescue, and with Pender’s and
    other brigades of Hill’s Division drove the enemy headlong from the field. Maj. Andrews having
    taken sick at Gordonsville, Capt. John Ashford was in command of the Thirty-eighth, and
    received commendation from Gen. Pender for his coolness and skillfulness in handling his men.
    D. M. McIntyre was not adjutant, having been promoted on July 9th, for gallantry and efficiency.
    On account of ill-health Major Andrews resigned his commission, and on the 21st of August
    Capt. John Ashford was promoted to major.

    Jackson made a wide circuit behind the mountains to cut the Federal communications at
    Manassas. On the 26th Pender’s Brigade gained a splendid victory over a brigade of the enemy
    at Manassas Junction. Jackson’s single corps, numbering less than 16,000 men, was resisting
    Gen. Pope’s entire army. On the 28th, the command formed line of battle for the memorable
    second battle of Manassas, which was a series of battles for three days. Pender’s Brigade took
    possession of the bridge across Bull Run and engaged the enemy across the river. His brigade
    finally crossed over to the east side, but the enemy withdrew. The loss was very slight. On
    Friday, the 29th, the enemy changed position and was attempting to interpose his army between
    Gen. Jackson and Alexandria. Jackson’s troops were arranged along the Manassas Gap
    Railroad. Jackson’s Division under Brigadier General Stark being on the right, Ewell’s, under
    Lawton, in the centre, and A.P. Hill’s on the left. The brigades of Thomas Pender, Archer; and
    Gregg, were on the extreme left. After Longstreet arrived the enemy changed position and
    began to concentrate all its force opposite Hill’s division. The attack was received with great
    steadiness, and the battle raged with great fury; the enemy was frequently repulsed, but on
    account of having so many fresh troops the attack was renewed. They succeeded in penetrating
    an interval between Gregg’s and Thomas’ divisions. Pender’s brigade was placed in the rear of
    Thomas’ with orders to support it. Gen. Pender in his report says: “Finally, it seemed to me to
    be the time to go to his (Thomas’) assistance. I ordered my brigade forward, moving just to the
    right of Col. Thomas. My men moved forward very gallantly, driving the enemy back across the
    railroad cut, through the woods on the opposite side and beyond their batteries in the adjoining
    field. A battery of the enemy which was on the right of the woods as we advanced was flanked
    by my command and the canoneers deserted their pieces. My line was halted on the edges of
    the field in front of the enemy, where I remained some time, when, being promised support from
    one of the staff in some of Jackson’s brigades, I crossed the field to attack the batteries. My
    men advanced well, receiving grape from the batteries; but support being waited for in vain, and
    seeing columns on my left and right manoeuvering to flank me, I withdrew and marched back to
    the railroad cut, a little to the right of the position previously held by Gen. Gregg. Gen. Archer
    very kindly came forward and relieved me until I could march to the rear and rest my men. I was
    ordered to the right to support some one of Gen. Jackson’s brigades. I marched across the
    railroad embankment, moving obliquely to the left until I had reached the large field again in which
    the enemy were found. Finding nothing to do unless it was to attack an overwhelming force of the
    enemy, supported very strongly by artillery, I withdrew after receiving heavy fire of grape and shell.
    Getting back to the railroad cut about the point I had reached the evening before, I received
    orders to march, in conjunction with other troops, particularly those of Gen. Archer, Cols. Thomas
    and Tallaferro. We all advanced together, taking the enemy, as it were, in echelon. We advanced
    steadily, driving the enemy from the field through the woods. While advancing through the woods
    we were exposed to a very heavy enflade [sic.] fire from the right. We continued our advance until
    after dark, when we came in contact with a body of the enemy. Each fired a volley. They ran
    and we rested for the night. Thus ended the Manassas fight with me. The brigade, with the
    exception of a few skulkers, behaved with great gallantry on both these days. They could not
    have behaved better. I cannot particularize at this distant day, but I will recollect that Capt. John
    Ashford, commanding the Thirty-eighth, behaved with great coolness and bravery. I had the
    misfortune to lose him on account of a wound in the leg.”

    Six separate and distinct attacks were made against Hill’s division and each time repulsed.
    Gen. Jackson said: “The three brigades of Archer, Pender and Thomas held together and drove
    everything before them, capturing the batteries and many prisoners, resting that night on Bull
    Run, and the ground thus won was occupied that night. These brigades had penetrated so far
    within the enemy’s lines that Capt. Ashe, assistant adjutant general to Gen. Pender, was taken
    prisoner that night returning from my headquarters to his own brigade.”

    The regiment received considerable loss. Lieut Wes. A. Stephenson, Company C, Thirty-eighth
    North Carolina, a brave soldier, was killed and Lieut. Duncan Black was wounded. For
    distinguished gallantry displayed in the celebrated charge, Sergt. R. M. Sharpe, Company G,
    was promoted to second junior lieutenant. After the wounding of Capt. Ashford, Capt M. McR.
    McLaughlin was in command of the regiment. Early next morning, September 1st, the army
    marched forward and came in contact with the enemy late in the evening at Ox Hill. The regiment
    was engaged in this fight, which raged with great fury, but the enemy retired from the field. On
    the 4th of September the army bivouacked near the Big Spring, between Leesburg and the
    Potomac, and on the next day the division crossed into Maryland, near Leesburg, but on the
    11th re-crossed into Virginia at Williamsport. On the next day Gen. White, with 3,000 men,
    retreated from the town and fell back upon Harper’s Ferry. The enemy occupied a ridge of hills,
    known as Bolivar Heights, extending from the Potomac to the Shenandoah. Gen Hill’s division
    was ordered to move along the left bank of the Shenandoah to turn the left flank of the enemy
    and enter Harper’s Ferry. The Thirty-eighth was in the left of the division. Pender, Archer and
    Brockenbrough were directed to gain the crest of the hill, Gen. Pender being entrusted with the
    execution of this command. Col. Brewater was in charge of the brigade, which advanced to within
    about 60 yards of the breastworks on the west point of Bolivar Heights, but the troops were
    withdrawn. Next morning the brigades of Pender and Thomas marched to within 150 yards of the
    works, while the artillery played upon the enemy. When the artillory [sic.] ceased, Pender began
    to advance, but the artillery opened again, and the enemy showed the white flag, and surrendered
    about 11,000 prisoners, 12,000 stand of arms, 70 pieces of artillery, and many stores. Captain
    Nicholas E. Armstrong, Company A, and Lieut Smith, Company K, were severely wounded.

    Hill’s Division remained to parole the prisoners and send off the captured goods, and on
    September 17, move to Sharpsburg, leaving Thomas at Harper’s Ferry. At Sharpsburg occurred
    one of the greatest battles of the civil war. Gen. Hill arrived in time to save the day, but Pender’s
    Brigade on the right of the division was not actively engaged, being under fire at long range of

    The division crossed the Potomac into Virginia, and on the 20th, at Shepardstown, were ordered
    to drive some brigades of the enemy across the river. The enemy massed in front of Pender’s
    Brigade and endeavored to turn his left. Gen. Pender became hotly engaged and informing
    Archer of his danger he (Archer) marched by the left flank, and forming on Pender’s left, a
    simultaneous, daring charge was made, and the enemy driven pell mell into the river. Then
    commenced the most terrible slaughter the war witnessed. The broad surface of the Potomac
    was blue with the floating bodies of the slain. But few escaped to tell the tale. By their own
    account, they lost 3,000 men killed and drowned from one brigade alone.
    Gen. Pender in his report says: “Capt Ashford, commanding the Thirty-eighth North Carolina at
    Manassas Junction and at Manassas, when he was wounded, has entitled himself to notice as
    well as promotion by his uniform bravery and good conduct. Lieuts. A J. Brown and J. M.
    Robinson, also of the same regiment, have attracted my attention more than once, as also
    Adjutant D. M. McIntyre. Lieut. Col. Armfield, having returned to the regiment the day before
    the battle, was in command and was severely wounded.”
    On December 13, the army met three divisions of Burnside’s Army at Fredericksburg, Va. At
    this time Gen. Hill occupied the front line formed of two regiments of Fields’ Brigade, and the
    brigades of Archer, Lane and Pender, the latter being on the extreme left. The enemy made
    several attempts to advance but were repulsed.” (Gen. A.P. Hill’s report). From the nature of
    the ground, and the entire absence of all protection, against artillery, Pender’s Brigade received
    the greatest part of the terrible fire. Gen. Pender was himself wounded. During the temporary
    absence of Gen. Pender, the command of the brigade devolved upon Col. Sales, of the Thirteenth.
    Gen. Pender, though wounded, resumed the command of his brigade as soon as his wound was
    After the withdrawal of the enemy the regiment, with Pender’s Brigade, went into winter quarters
    at Camp Gregg, below Fredericksburg, and did picket duty near Moss Creek church. On
    December 27th Colonel William J. Hoke rejoined the regiment. Lieutenant Colonel Armfield, while
    at home on furlough, on account of a wound received at Shepardstown, was elected solicitor, and
    resigned his position in the army. Captain John Ashford was elected to fill the vacancy. The
    following is a copy of General Hill’s order:

    CAMP BRANCH, SEPT. 24, 1862.
    Soldiers of the Light Division:
    You have done well and I am pleased with you. You have fought in every battle from
    Mechanicsville to Shepardstown and no man can say that the Light Division was ever broken.
    You held the left at Manassas against overwhelming numbers, and saved the army. You saved the
    day at Sharpsburg, and at Shepardstown you were selected to face a storm of round shot, shell
    and grape, such as I never before saw. I am proud to say to you that your services are appreciated
    by our general and that you have a reputation in this army which it should be the subject of every
    officer and private to sustain.
    [Signed] A. P. Hill,
    Major General.
    The regiment remained in camp until the 29th of April, 1863, when the command marched in the
    direction of Fredricksville, and remained in camp below the city until the evening of May 1.
    On the morning of May 2 Jackson began to march upon Chancellorsville, and after a long and
    fatiguing journey the division was placed at right angles to the old turnpike road, Hill’s Division
    being third in line, Rhodes’ and Colston’s being ahead of him. Hooker, having thrown up heavy
    works, west, south and east, with the Chancellor house behind the center, and with the dense
    thicket in front, was in a position almost impregnable. The flank movement was ordered about 6
    o’clock in the afternoon. The Confederates rushed forward, cheering wildly, and in a few moments
    the enemy were completely demoralized and fled. On account of the thickets the lines had been
    mingled in confusion and it was necessary to reform the lines. The third line (Hill’s Division) was
    ordered to the front. Pender’s Brigade entered the road and pushed on by the flank until they
    reached the most advanced position of the troops. Here in the road the whole brigade received a
    most destructive shelling from the batteries near Chancellorsville. Hill’s Division was now in front,
    and was engaged in relieving those who had been in the front line during the evening. On all sides
    the scattered troops were gathered around their colors. Jackson, accompanied by his staff and
    escort, rode down the road towards Chancellorsville. In the obscurity of the night they were
    mistaken for the enemy and fired upon and Jackson was mortally wounded. As soon as the
    musketry fired the enemy’s batteries again swept the turnpike with shell and canister. Pender
    massed his brigade to the left of the wood, threw out skirmishers and remained in this position
    until Sunday morning, May 3. When daylight came next morning, a private soldier in Company I,
    of the Thirty-eighth North Carolina Regiment, found Jackson’s gloves in the road where he had
    dropped them when shot. They were buckskin gloves with the name of T. J. Jackson inside the
    Hill had intended an attack on the enemy as soon as he had formed his line in front, but
    soon after Jackson was wounded he himself was wounded, and the attack was not made. Maj.
    Gen. Stuart was now in command of the corps. About dawn Sunday morning, May 3, Gen.
    Stuart renewed the attack, Gen. Heth in command of Hill’s Division taking the advance. The
    enemy was again charged in the face of their deadly fire, and twice were their works taken and
    twice relinquished. About 10 o’clock the Federal army was driven by a mighty charge from all the
    fortified positions, back towards the Rappahannock, with heavy loss in killed and wounded and
    prisoners. On account of the nature of the country, this region being known as the wilderness,
    rapid pursuit was almost impossible. In the charge the troops were scattered, and after being
    gotten together, the command maintained its position Sunday and Monday, and on Tuesday
    evening the enemy re-crossed the river.

    Gen. Pender in his report says: “I can truly say that my brigade fought May 32 with
    unsurpassed courage and determination. I never knew them to act universally so well. I noticed
    no skulking, and they never showed any hesitation in following their colors. My list of killed and
    wounded will show how manfully they fought on that glorious day. After having witnessed the
    fighting of nearly all the troops that fought on the left of the road I am satisfied with my own but
    by no means claiming any superiority. All that I saw behaved as heroes. ***”

    “Lieut. Col. John Ashford, Lieuts. Alsa J. Brown, Jno. Robinson, Thirty-eighth North
    Carolina, the former part of the time and the latter part of the time in charge of my sharp shooters,
    distinguished themselves very much. Col. Ashford was remarked for his gallantry by all, and Lieut.
    Brown continued with or in charge of the sharp-shooters for several days. He is a young man who
    deserves promotion. He kept his skirmishers so close to the enemy’s breastworks on Monday
    and Tuesday as to pick off the artillery horses, men working on their trenches, and any one seen
    mounted. He drove in other skirmishers on all occasions. I should mention that Maj. M. McR.
    McLaughlin, Thirty-eight North Carolina was badly wounded while behaving most gallantly.
    Adjutant D. N. McIntyre is also spoken of for his distinguished conduct.”

    The loss of the brigade was 700, the Thirty-eight North Carolina losing two officers;
    Capt. McRae, and Lieut. Hare, killed: Officers 81 wounded; 16 privates killed; 12 missing. The
    Confederate Congress passed an act by which badges might be given to enlisted men, whom
    the companies might select as being entitled to them. After the battle of Chancellorsville the
    following were given badges:
    Company A, Private Jesse A. Nethercutt, Duplin county; Company B, Private Thomas Dinkins,
    Yadkin county; Company C, Private Benjamin Sutton, Sampson county; Company D, First
    Sergeant David A. Thompson, Sampson county; Company E, Private Wm. J. Hutcheson (killed)
    Richmond county; Company F, Private Wm. S. Huffman, Catawba county; Company G, Private
    W. F. Matheson, Alexander county; Company H, Corporal D. P. Woodburn: Randolph county
    (killed at Gettysburg); Company I, Private Thomas J. Ramsey, Cleveland county; Company K,
    Private W. H. McPhail, Cumberland county.
    Medals were also recommended to be given to Adjutant McIntyre and Lieut. A. J.
    When A. P. Hill took command of Jackson’s Corps, after recovering from his wound,
    Pender, also wounded at Chancellorsville, was promoted to major general, and Col. A. M. Scales,
    the senior colonel of the brigade, to Brigadier General. Scales being absent on account of a
    wound received at Chancellorsville, Col. W. J. Hoke was placed in command of the brigade and
    continued in command until Scales rejoined the brigade near the Maryland line. The wound
    received by Maj. McLaughlin prevented him from returning to his command, and Capt. G. W.
    Flowers was elected major.

    May 13, 1863.
    General Order No. 28.
    Upon resuming command of the brigade, it affords me great pleasure to express to you
    my high appreciation of your conduct and services in the late battle of Chancellorsville. Troops
    could not have fought better or more gallantly, opposing successfully such fearful odds, strongly
    posted and offering stubborn resistance, as evidenced by your loss, greater than that of any
    brigade in the army in proportion to numbers engaged. I may be exacting, but in this instance
    you may rest assured that I am perfectly satisfied. I am proud to say that your services are
    known and appreciated by those higher in command than myself. * * *
    [Signed] W. D. PENDER,
    Brigadier General.
    On the morning of June 6th, 1863, the brigade went into line below Fredericksburg, in
    front of the Bernard house, the enemy being in the Port Royal road and in the valley behind the
    house. Col. Wm. J. Hoke was ordered to advance his skirmishers and fire if the enemy occupied
    the Port Royal road. Lieut. Alsa J. Brown, afterwards captain of Company C, took command,
    assisted by Lieut. Robinson, afterwards Captain of Company B, and the other officers of the
    skirmish corps, about 20 men. Instead of feeling, he charged the enemy and attacked and drove
    from the road the Sixth Vermont, killing and sounding about 35, and holding the road until the
    enemy re-crossed the Rappahannock.

    After being encamped for about ten days, Hill’s corps moved towards Gettysburg,
    Pender’s division arriving within eight miles of Gettysburg on the morning of the 30th. At 3 a.m.,
    July 1st, the command took up line of march, Pender’s division with McIntosh’s battalion of artillery
    following 11th and Pegram’s battalion of artillery. The field arrangement put Scales’ Brigade on
    the extreme left of the division, and the Thirty-eighth North Carolina on the left of the brigade, its
    left resting on the Chambersburg pike. The advance of the enemy was driven back to the hills
    where their forces were to oppose the advance of the Confederates. At the first charge Pender’s
    division was in the rear, Scales’ and Thomas’ brigades being on the right. The enemy offering
    determined resistance, Pender’s division, except Thomas’ Brigade, was ordered to the front.
    The ammunition of the advance line having given out, they halted and lay down. Scales’ Brigade
    soon passed over them with the other brigades, rushed upon the ascent, crossed the bridge and
    commenced the descent just opposite the Theological Seminary. The regiment being on the
    flank, encountered a most terrific fire of grape and musketry in front. Every discharge made sad
    loss in the line, but the troops pressed on double quick until the bottom was reached, a distance
    of about 73 yards from the ridge just crossed and about the same distance from the college in
    front. By this time the line was badly broken. Every officer in Scales’ Brigade except one, Lieut.
    Gardman, upon whom the command devolved, was disabled, 400 men killed, wounded and
    missing. The loss of the Thirty-eighth was 100 in killed and wounded or captured. Gen. Scales
    and Adj. Gen. Riddick were wounded, and Maj. Clark killed, Col. Hoke, Col Ashford, Col.
    Lawrence, Capt. Thornburg, acting major, were among the wounded. Though wounded, Col.
    Lawrence took command of the brigade and Capt. Thornburg, of the regiment. Some of the
    companies were without a single officer. The regiment now was moved to the right of the line,
    and throwing out skirmishers to the right and front it remained in this position until morning, it
    being then about 10 o’clock. Early next morning the brigade was placed on the right of the
    artillery. A line of skirmishers under command of Lieut A. J. Brown was thrown out, and was held
    against several strong attacks. The Scales Brigade joined the division on the left again and was
    joined on to Lane's Brigade. On the morning of July 3rd, Scales' Brigade was ordered to the right
    and placed in command of Gen. Trimble, and while here suffered greatly from the artillery fire. The
    regiment was then ordered forward over a crimson plain. The Federal lines, as the regiment
    emerged from the woods were about a mile in front. The troops were compelled to cross a fence,
    and were by this time losing heavily from grape and canister. The line was somewhat deranged.
    Capt. Thornburg was disabled. About 150 yards from the enemy’s line another fence retarded the
    advance, but the troops rushed on and reached a third fence on the side of the road. There was
    by this time only a skirmish line. The Thirty-eighth was then only a few feet in front of the enemy’s
    infantry. The enemy rushed out to meet the advancing line, and a flanking party, concealed in
    ditches, captured about thirty men besides killing a large number inside the Federal lines. Some
    tried to escape but were shot down. Every man in Company A except Adjutant H. C. Moore and
    Lieutenant A. J. Brown were shot down and these were captured. Adjutant D. M. McIntyre, acting
    brigade adjutant general of Scales’ Brigade, escaped. After the third day’s fight the regiment had
    only about 40 men, commanded by a first lieutenant.

    The two brigades, Lanes and Scales’, were reduced to mere squads, and after the retreat a line
    was formed again where the first line was formed, and the brigade remained here until the 4th
    when the retreat to Hagerstown began, which place was reached on July 7th. On July 11th line
    of battle was formed and the regiment remained here until the night of the 13th,but no fight
    ensued except skirmishing. After this the retreat to Falling Water began, Pender’s Division
    being rear guard. The Potomac was crossed and Culpepper Court House reached August 1st.
    The division went into winter quarters at Orange Court House and the regiment did picket duty
    on the Rapidan On the 7th of February, during Gen. Scales’ absence, Col. Hoke commanded
    the brigade against an advance of the enemy on the brigade picket line at Barnett’s Ford on the
    Rapidan, and it maintained its position until the enemy retired. After the death of Pender at
    Gettysburg Wilcox became division commander. On the morning of May 4th the enemy under
    Gen. Grant crossed the Rapidan at Ely’s and Germanna Fords. Two corps of Lee’s army
    moved to oppose him, Ewell’s by the turnpike and Hill’s by the plank road. As soon as the
    Confederate forces reached the enemy a strong attack was made on Ewell who repulsed them,
    but soon they returned, massing a heavy force against Hill. Heth’s and Wilcox’s Divisions met
    every assault and successfully resisted them, but the enemy continued to make attacks until
    nightfall. Next morning as Longstreet was relieving Hill, the enemy made an attack which at first
    created some confusion, but as soon as the troops recovered themselves, the enemy was driven
    back with spirit rarely surpassed. At night an attack was made against the enemy, and they
    being panic-stricken by the cheering of the Confederate Army, a stampede was begun with led
    to a general rout. The third army corps under General Early, (Hill being unwell) left the position
    at the wilderness May 8, 1864 and engaged in the great battles of Spotsylvania court house
    when the Thirty-eighth lost several brave men. The regiment was in the attack made by General
    Hill on General Warren at Noel’s station May 23 and the skirmishing at Riddle’s shop June 13,
    and on down to Petersburg, which was reached June 18.

    The following is a resolution of the Confederate Congress, May 17, 1864:
    “The Congress of the Confederate Sates of American do resolve, That the thanks of Congress
    are eminently due, and are hereby tendered to the Thirty-fourth and Thirty-eighth Regiments of
    North Carolina Troops, for the promptness and unanimity with which they have re-enlisted for
    the war.”

    Colonel Hoke from wounds received in battle was disabled for field service and was
    appointed for the post at Charlotte. Lieutenant Colonel John Ashford was promoted to the
    command of the regiment; Major General W. Flowers to be lieutenant colonel, and Captain J. T.
    Wilson to be major.

    The regiment was engaged in a very hard fought battle at Ream’s Station, when the
    divisions under Wilcox, Mahone and Johnston attacked the enemy and captured about 2,000
    prisoners. Hill attacked General Warren at the Davis House, on the Weldon road, 3 miles from
    the city, August 21, 1864, defeating him and capturing 2,700 prisoners. The regiment suffered
    severely in this engagement. The command remained around Petersburg until April 2, 1865,
    when the Confederate lines were pierced in three places. The Thirth-eighth [sic.] was ordered
    out of the works, and was soon thereafter on the retreat from Petersburg. The enemy were
    pursuing the retreating troops very hard, and first one regiment and then another were thrown
    out as skirmishers to retard the enemy. A line of battle was formed and breastworks were thrown
    up at Southerland’s Farm and when the enemy made an attack they were repulsed with heavy
    loss and several prisoners were captured. The enemy turned the flank at about 4 p.m., and the
    Southern troops were again compelled to retreat. Cook’s, Scales’ and McRae’s North Carolina
    Brigades and McGowan’s South Carolina Brigade, the troops on the right of the break in the line,
    formed the corps. The North Carolina Regiments, Thirteenth, Twenty-Second, Twenty-Seventh,
    and Fortieth were thrown out to check the enemy while the other troops endeavored to cross,
    hoping to rejoin the main army from which the brigades had been separated. It was found
    impossible to cross and the regiments thrown out were recalled, when the troops pursued their
    way up the river until about 2 o’clock at night when they resisted. The march was begun at
    sunrise the next morning, April 3rd, and Deep Creek was reached about 9 a.m. A halt was made
    to let the wagon train get ahead for safety, and an attempt was made to throw a temporary bridge
    across the creek in order to cross. The cavalry had been in the rear guard, and about 2 o’clock
    they came rushing up and reported that the enemy were pursuing. McGowan’s Brigade was
    enabled to cross the bridge, which was not yet completed, but the other troops followed the
    wagons and crossed at a ford about three miles above the bridges. By this time the enemy were
    in sight, but no attack was made. The intention was to cross the Appomattox at Goode’s bridge,
    but the waters were very high and it was impossible to get to the bridge on account of the
    overflow, therefore the troops were marched up the river, and as night came on went into camp
    at the cross roads above the bridge. Couriers were sent out to find a place to cross, in order to
    join Gen. Lee’s army, and about 1 o’clock the command was ordered to march. After crossing
    the river and marching through open fields and by-roads, Anderson’s Georgia brigade was
    reached. This brigade was the leading brigade in Lee’s army, and had crossed on a pontoon
    bridge when the whole army was then crossing. There was great rejoicing on the part of the
    soldiers at again meeting their comrades, from whom they had been separated for three days.
    The regiment was halted about sunrise and breakfast was prepared, after which the march was
    continued to Amelia C. H., Va. where the night was spent. The enemy next morning attacked
    and began burning the wagon train, but were driven off. The retreat was continued, the rear guard
    having frequent fights with the enemy. On Friday, April 7, 1865, Farmville, Va., was reached and
    Scales’ Brigade relieved Cook’s Brigade as rear guard of the infantry. The enemy having crossed
    the river, pressed the lines very hard and consequently the rear guard was engaged in several
    attacks, and suffered severely. The enemy was driven off, and this was the last fighting in which
    the regiment was engaged before the surrender. Saturday, April 8, the regiment camped about
    three miles from Appomattox C. H., Va. As Appomattox C. H. was approached the next morning
    the Federal line was seen on the hill at the court house. Line of battle was drawn up and it was
    expected that an advance would be made. It began to be rumored that a surrender was made,
    but nothing definite could be learned until 12 o’clock, when it was known that Lee had indeed
    surrendered. It was soon learned that the soldiers would be paroled and given permission to
    return home. Monday morning, April 10, 1865, the farewell address of Gen. Lee was read to the
    regiment. All the soldiers of the regiment had the opportunity of shaking hands with Gen Lee
    and hearing him say, “God bless you, boys; I hope we shall meet again.” After remaining in this
    position until Wednesday, April 12th, the regiment was marched over near the court house,
    where the arms were stacked in front of the enemy. On the same evening the soldiers were
    furnished with the following:

    April 10, 1865

    The bearer ____________ of Co_________, 38th Regt of N. C. Troops, a paroled
    prisoner of the Army of Northern Virginia, has permission to go to his home, and there remain
    undisturbed. JON. H. HYMAN,
    Colonel 13th N.C. Troops
    Commanding Scales’ Brigade
    The Thirty-eighth Regiment of North Carolina Troops was disbanded and passed out of existence.
    Lieut. Colonel 38th N C. Regt.
    SOURCE: Daily Charlotte Observer, 3/31/1895

    Group Link:

    Steam Group Link:


    Hardee's Revised Drill Manual:

    Uniforms of the 38th, September 1862:

    General Uniform Guidelines for North Carolina:
    Attached Images Attached Images
    Last edited by Lance Rawlings; 02-06-2021 at 08:06 PM. Reason: Updated Roster

  2. #2

  3. #3

    CSA Captain

    Lance Rawlings's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2016
    North Carolina, United States
    Thanks General! I'm glad I finally got this up, I've been at a reenactment all weekend. Now for the recruits to start pouring in...
    To the Colors!

    Captain Lance Rawlings
    Company K, 38th North Carolina, Pender's Brigade, A.P. Hill's Division, Jackson's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

  4. #4

    USA General of the Army

    A. P. Hill's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2015
    In Maryland State Near to both Antietam and Gettysburg, Harper's Ferry et al.
    Welcome to the Light Division!

  5. #5

    CSA Captain

    Lance Rawlings's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2016
    North Carolina, United States
    Quote Originally Posted by A. P. Hill View Post
    Welcome to the Light Division!
    Thank you, General! Pleasure to be here!
    To the Colors!

    Captain Lance Rawlings
    Company K, 38th North Carolina, Pender's Brigade, A.P. Hill's Division, Jackson's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

  6. #6

    CSA 2nd Lieutenant

    Duke Of Longtree's Avatar
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    Jan 2016
    Baton Rouge , Louisiana
    good luck

  7. #7

    CSA Captain

    Lance Rawlings's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2016
    North Carolina, United States
    Quote Originally Posted by Duke Of Longtree View Post
    good luck
    Thank you, Sir! We'll see you on the field.
    To the Colors!

    Captain Lance Rawlings
    Company K, 38th North Carolina, Pender's Brigade, A.P. Hill's Division, Jackson's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

  8. #8

    CSA Colonel

    Locke1740's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2016
    South Carolina
    Glory to our Carolinas!
    "If we were wrong in our contest, then the Declaration of Independence of 1776 was a grave mistake and the revolution to which it led was a crime. If Washington was a patriot; Lee cannot have been a rebel."

    "I want you to try to teach to your children and to your children's children that ours was not a lost cause. I want you to tell them that we were fighting for the right ..."

    Wade Hampton III

  9. #9

    CSA Major General

    Join Date
    Oct 2015
    Welcome to the Confederacy!

  10. #10
    -Mitchell-'s Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2015
    Welcome fellow Tar Heels, give 'em hell boys!

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