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Thread: Original Civil War Cannons

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    Original Civil War Cannons

    This thread is for the posting of any civil war cannons that were used during the civil war 1861-1865. Post what type of Artillery it is and general knowledge about the cannon.





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    General information











    While the gunner sighted the piece, Number 1 sponged the bore; Number 5 received a round from Number 7 at the limber and carried the round to Number 2, who placed it in the bore. Number 1 rammed the round to the breech while Number 3 placed a thumb over the vent to prevent premature detonation of the charge. When the gun was loaded and sighted, Number 3 inserted a vent pick in the vent and punctured the cartridge bag. Number 4 attached a lanyard to a friction primer and inserted the primer in the vent. At the command “fire,” Number 4 yanked the lanyard. Number 6 cut fuzes for exploding shells (if needed). The process was repeated until the command was given to cease firing.








    10 pdr. Parrott Rifle


    One famous U.S. inventor was a former West Point graduate and ordnance officer named Robert Parker Parrott.

    Robert Parker Parrott In 1836, Parrott resigned his rank of captain and went to work for the West Point Foundry at Cold Spring, New York. This foundry was a civilian operated business and Parrott, as a superintendent, was able to dedicate some forty years perfecting a rifled cannon and a companion projectile. By 1860, he had patented a new method of attaching the reinforcing band on the breech of a gun tube. Although he was not the first to attach a band to a tube, he was the first to use a method of rotating the tube while slipping the band on hot. This rotation, while cooling, caused the band to attach itself in place uniformly rather than in one or two places as was the common method, which allowed the band to sag in place. The 10-pounder Parrott was patented in 1861 and the 20- and 30-pounder guns followed in 1861. He quickly followed up these patents by producing 6.4-, 8-, and 10-inch caliber cannons early in the war. The Army referred to these as 100, 200, and 300-pounder Parrotts respectively. By the end of the conflict the Parrott gun was being used extensively in both armies




    Type: Rifled gun
    Rarity: Common
    Years of Manufacture: Between 1861 and 1865
    Tube Composition: Cast Iron, Wrought Iron Breech Band
    Bore Diameter: 2.9 inches (Model 1861); 3.0 inches (Model 1863)
    Rifling Type (US): 3 grooves, right hand gain twist
    Rifling Type (CS): 3 groves right hand twist, or 12 grooves left hand twist
    Standard Powder Charge: 1 lb. Black Powder
    Projectiles: 10 lb. solid bolt, case, common shell, cannister
    Effective Range (at 5): up to 1,900 yards (1.1 miles)
    Projectile Flight Time (at 5): about 8 seconds
    Max Range (at 35): 5,000 yards (2.8 miles)
    Projectile Flight Time (at 35): about 21 seconds
    Tube Length: 78 inches (US); 81 inches (CS)
    Tube Weight: 890 lbs. (US); 1,150 lbs. (CS)
    Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 1,800 lbs. (US); 2,060 lbs. (CS)
    Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels
    Horses Required to Pull: 6
    No. in North America: approx. 630
    Cost in 1862 Dollars: $180 (US); $ 300 (CS)
    Cost in 1865 Dollars: $187 (US); $3,000 (CS)
    Invented By: Robert Parker Parrott in 1860
    US Casting Foundry: West Point Foundry, Cold Springs, NY
    CS Casting Foundry: Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, VA
    Special Notes: Easy to Manufacture, Inexpensive, Reliable, and Accurate to Shoot


    *There were about 69 10-pdr. Parrotts in Federal Service on the Campaign and 48 or more in Confederate batteries. Click here to see the units




    6-pdr. Gun


    Model 1841 6-pounder Gun
    This popular workhorse of the Mexican War era was regarded as superseded by the Union artillery, but was still heavily employed by a Confederate army that could not afford to pass up any opportunities.



    Type: Smoothbore gun
    Rarity: Common to Uncommon
    Years of Manufacture: 1841 to 1863
    Tube Composition: Bronze or cast iron
    Bore Diameter: 3.67 inches
    Standard Powder Charge: 1.25 lbs.
    Projectiles: Solid shot (6.1 lb), spherical case, common shell, and cannister
    Effective Range (at 5): up to 1,523 yards
    Tube Length: 60 inches
    Tube Weight: 884 lbs.
    Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels
    Horses Required to Pull: 6
    No. in North America: approx. 700
    Special Notes: Workhorse of Mexican War, but considered obsolete by Civil War

    *At least 58 of these pieces saw service in Confederate batteries at Sharpsburg, but none were known to be used by the Federals on the Campaign. Click here to see the units




    24 pdr. Howitzers



    Type: Howitzer
    Rarity: Rare
    Years of Manufacture: 1841 to 1863
    Tube Composition: Bronze
    Bore Diameter: 5.82 inches
    Standard Powder Charge: 2 lbs.
    Projectiles: 18.4 lb. spherical case, common shell, cannister
    Muzzle Velocity: 1,060 fps
    Effective Range (at 5): 1,322 yards
    Tube Length: 65 inches
    Tube Weight: 1,318 lbs.
    Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 2,443 lbs.
    Carriage Type: No. 2 Field Carriage (1,125 lbs.), 57" wheels
    Horses Required to Pull: 6

    *There were 4 24-pounder howitzers in Confederate batteries at Sharpsburg. Click here to see the units




    Napoleon



    This famous gun was French-developed under Emperor Napoleon III in 1856, and the US War Department obtained license to produce it in 1857. There were more of these pieces on the Campaign than any other type.

    The gun tube was made of bronze, and had a smooth bore. It was the most popular and widely used Light Artillery weapon of the War in Federal service, and was by far the most common piece (on either side) on the field at Sharpsburg.

    Accurate at all ranges, it was especially effective using cannister at close range much like a giant shotgun. It was extremely well built and highly reliable, even after firing 200 or more rounds in a day's engagement.

    Most Federal Napoleons were manufactured in Massachusetts by the Ames Company and the Revere Copper Company. The Confederates reproduced the Napoleon design at foundries located in Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, Virginia, Georgia and South Carolina.

    Ammunition Used: solid shot (12.3 lb), spherical case, common shell, cannister
    Bore: 4.62 inches
    Maximum range: 1619 yards
    Muzzle Velocity: 1485 feet per second
    Barrel Length: 66 inches
    Weight: 2355 pounds
    Other notes: Weight figure is for standard gun carriage (1,128lb) + tube (1,227lb). Max range is for 2.5 lb black powder charge behind a 12.3 lb. solid shot.

    *There were 130 of these piece in service Federal service and 30 in Confederate batteries at Sharpsburg. Click here to see the units




    Model 1831 6 pounder


    Model 1831 6 pounder field gun
    Manufactured in 1836, 1 of 42 made
    Made of cast iron, Number 1 carrage
    Bore: 3.67
    Bore length:47.5 inches
    Overall lenghth:60 inches
    Powder charge:1.25 lbs
    Range: 800-100 yards(5-600 butter zone)
    Ammo: Round ball, Case shot, Cannister

    Small experimental run. Only 2 are known to still exist(both in museums) and there are rumors of a 3rd in private hands but I haven't been able to confirm. I don't know the weight of the tube offhand but I want to say its around 800. (Source Private H. Love, Richmond Howitzers 1st company War of Rights)

    *unknown if any of these pieces where in use during Sharpsburg





    6 pdr. Wiard Rifle



    Type: Rifled gun
    Rarity: Rare
    Years of Manufacture: Between 1861 and 1862
    Tube Composition: Puddled wrought-iron (semi-steel)
    Bore Diameter: 2.6 inches
    Rifling Type: 8 grooves, left hand twist
    Standard Powder Charge: 0.75 lbs. Black Powder
    Projectiles: 6 lb. Hotchkiss bolt
    Effective Range (at 35): 7,000 yards
    Tube Length: 53 inches
    Tube Weight: 725 lbs.
    Carriage Type: Wiard Field Carriage
    No. in North America: about 60
    Invented By: Norman Wiard

    Possibly only one CSA battery had this piece Click here to see the units




    12 pdr Howitzers

    Type: Howitzer
    Rarity: Uncommon to Rare
    Years of Manufacture: 1841 to 1863
    Tube Composition: Bronze
    Bore Diameter: 4.62 inches
    Standard Powder Charge: 1 lb.
    Projectiles: 8.9 lb. round balls
    Effective Range (at 5): 1072 yards
    Tube Length: 53 inches
    Tube Weight: 788 lbs.
    Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels
    Horses Required to Pull: 6

    *There were 3 of these piece in service Federal service and 58 in Confederate batteries at Sharpsburg Click here to see the units








    I will keep adding Cannons when time permits me
    Last edited by Dutchconfederate; 04-01-2019 at 10:05 AM.
    https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/699085729942208593/720251201278705674/pelhams-sig.png

  3. #3
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    Awesome Posts man! Really enjoyed the read


    - Kyle

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    Model 1831 6 pounder field gun
    Manufactured in 1836, 1 of 42 made
    Made of cast iron, Number 1 carrage
    Bore: 3.67
    Bore length:47.5 inches
    Overall lenghth:60 inches
    Powder charge:1.25 lbs
    Range: 800-100 yards(5-600 butter zone)
    Ammo: Round ball, Case shot, Cannister

    Small experimental run. Only 2 are known to still exist(both in museums) and there are rumors of a 3rd in private hands but I haven't been able to confirm. I don't know the weight of the tube offhand but I want to say its around 800.
    Capt. H.Love, Richmond Howitzers Battery A. Join Today!

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    Added 2 models to the 2nd post containing the list so far.

    Added:
    - Napoleon
    - M1831 6 Pounder field gun (Provided by H. Love)
    Last edited by Dutchconfederate; 04-17-2018 at 07:13 AM.
    https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/699085729942208593/720251201278705674/pelhams-sig.png

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    Added 12 pdr Howitzer
    Added 6 pdr Wiard Rifle
    Last edited by Dutchconfederate; 04-01-2019 at 07:19 AM.
    https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/699085729942208593/720251201278705674/pelhams-sig.png

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    Pelhams battery should be in the company tool.
    https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/699085729942208593/720251201278705674/pelhams-sig.png

  8. #8
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    Check out "Reminiscences of the Civil War & A Photograph History of Civil War Artillery" by General John B. Gordon, "The Boys of Adams' Battery G: The Civil War Through the Eyes of a Union Light Artillery Unit" by Robert Grandchamp, "Military Memoirs of a Confederate: A Critical Narrative" by General Edward Porter Alexander, and "Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg" by Philip M. Cole. These are the 4 books on artillery I have.

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    The CSA Baltimore Battery Started near the West Woods and shift towards Dunker Church.

    According to a tablet on the battlefield at Antietam, the battery's single 12 pounder howitzer was of iron rather than the usual bronze, and was unique at the battle.
    Source: http://antietam.aotw.org/officers.php?unit_id=737 & http://antietam.stonesentinels.com/m...battery-c-s-a/

    On the morning of the 17th the artillery on Lee's left engaged Federal batteries for nearly two hours. Federal infantry threatened the position near mid-morning but was met by Jackson's infantry. The infantry battle soon shifted further south toward the Dunkard Church and again the artillery found itself with little support. Federal infantry massed in front of the artillery and soon advance. Brockenborough, temporarily in command of his battery and five others, 24 guns in all, orders his men "Do not pull a lanyard until you get the command." He waited until the Federal line was nearly on top of his guns, then all 24 opened with double canister. Three times the Federals charged, and three times they were repulsed. W.W. Goldsborough writes "The ground was literally covered - nay; piled - with the slain and amimed of the enemy."

    https://cdn.discordapp.com/attachments/699085729942208593/720251201278705674/pelhams-sig.png

  10. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dutchconfederate View Post
    The CSA Baltimore Battery Started near the West Woods and shift towards Dunker Church.

    According to a tablet on the battlefield at Antietam, the battery's single 12 pounder howitzer was of iron rather than the usual bronze, and was unique at the battle.
    Source: http://antietam.aotw.org/officers.php?unit_id=737 & http://antietam.stonesentinels.com/m...battery-c-s-a/

    On the morning of the 17th the artillery on Lee's left engaged Federal batteries for nearly two hours. Federal infantry threatened the position near mid-morning but was met by Jackson's infantry. The infantry battle soon shifted further south toward the Dunkard Church and again the artillery found itself with little support. Federal infantry massed in front of the artillery and soon advance. Brockenborough, temporarily in command of his battery and five others, 24 guns in all, orders his men "Do not pull a lanyard until you get the command." He waited until the Federal line was nearly on top of his guns, then all 24 opened with double canister. Three times the Federals charged, and three times they were repulsed. W.W. Goldsborough writes "The ground was literally covered - nay; piled - with the slain and amimed of the enemy."

    You pull that long quote from the Screenshot post I made about the MD Regiments?

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